Sodium Calcium Silicate Glass is harmful - benefit or harm

Production and characteristics of silicate glass

Sodium Calcium Silicate Glass is harmful

There are universal building materials that are used in the erection of any objects, regardless of their technological purpose. Silicate glass belongs to such elements.

This is one of the most ancient materials, which mankind has learned to produce from time immemorial. Moreover, according to the composition of the current substance, there is little different from the oldest.

Only the technology of manufacture and useless impurities in the composition has become much smaller.

Making material

Phased it looks like this:

  • 1. The main components for production are quartz sand, limestone and soda. Of these, with the help of special equipment, a homogeneous mass is prepared - the mixture, into which all the indicated elements are included in chopped form.
  • 2. Further, the prepared composition enters the furnace, where, under the influence of a temperature of from 300 to 2500 degrees, it occurs to a homogeneous liquid mass. Such a wide range is caused by the presence of a large amount of glass grades and depends on the additives used. Often those perform carbide metals.
  • 3. Further, the resulting substance enters the forms that will correspond to the type of finished product. There, glass is frozen with a temperature sufficient to prevent the crystallization of the components components.
  • 4. The resulting material will not necessarily be transparent. This parameter also depends on the use of additional elements when smelting.

Professional chemists call the sodium-calcium-silicate glass material.

This is due to the fact that the substance is an alloy of three oxides - monovalent sodium, bivalent calcium and tetravalent silicon.

Moreover, in one structural unit, it is contained in one share of metal oxides and at once six shares of silicon oxide. It is precisely that all the properties that glass possesses.

Other metals and their connections can also be included in the silicate glass. They are added to change the technical characteristics and give the material new parameters that could help him in performing direct functions. Non-metallic elements are applied much less frequently and constitute mainly fluorides.

The fact is that glass has a lot of various industries, so it has a lot of brands. These products are distinguished by their transparency, strength, hardness, color. For each individual indicator corresponds to a special chemical element. Therefore, any non-standard model will cost more than the usual glass obtained from limestone, sand and soda.

Liquid glass

This composition is also widely used in the construction industry. In particular, it serves for the manufacture of refractory materials.

After processing with a liquid concrete, a tree, paint ceases to be afraid of an open fire. The substance also strengthens the weak soils, inclined to weathering useful trace elements.

Used as the main component in the manufacture of heat-resistant ceramics for the smelting of metal forms.

One of the main characteristics of the material is a silicate liquid glass module. This indicator characterizes the percentage of silicon oxide to sodium oxide in the composition.

The value only shows the yield of a silica product, but does not determine the quality of the solution itself.

For calculations, chemical research methods are used, which are conducted using special equipment.

Product specifications

  • • The physical density is in the range of 2500-2600 kilograms per cubic meter and does not depend on the temperature conditions of the atmosphere;
  • • The elastic module (Jung module) - 70 gigapascal;
  • • a shift module that characterizes the ability to resist the shift deformation is at the mark of 26.2 gigapascals;
  • • The value of the relative cross-compression ratio to relative longitudinal stretching or the Poisson coefficient is 0.25;
  • • The strength limit is 1000 megapascal, but when hardening, it is possible to increase the basic indicator 3-4 times. There are utensils from silicate glass in every home, so many know that if you drop the glass on the floor, it is not always broken, because for its manufacture, they use a hardened brand;
  • • The hardness indicator on the MOOS scale - 7 units;
  • • In terms of fragility, glass refers to the category of perfectly fragile materials, which means its breakdown without visible deformation;
  • • thermal conductivity is extremely low - 0.0023 cal / (cm * s * hail);
  • • The melting point is in the range of 400-600 degrees Celsius.

The price of such glass per square meter depends on the brand.

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The best views of this glass are obtained from pure crystal. Adding impurities is unacceptable, because The result is a completely different brand of material. Thanks to its characteristics ......
Basically, glass of this type is used in everyday life, for example, for the manufacture of glass doors of wind wardrobes or fireplaces. Transparent material has excellent performance and ......
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A source: https://promplace.ru/steklo-staty/silikatnoe-steklo-2005.htm.

Silicate glass: production and use

Glass is one of the popular, sought-after materials for different spheres of life.

It is used in construction and finishing work, it makes works of applied and high art from it, used in the space industry. This is one of the available, simple materials.

The most common appearance with which we most often come across and use products from it - silicate glass.

What it is?

The ancient glass of glass is considered beads found during excavations in Egypt, scientists believe that the find more than five thousand years. Since then, the composition of the glass has changed little. The main element of the material is quartz sand (Si02) - silicate. It is added to it soda, Potash, limestone and several more elements.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sca1gx8_ljw.

In industry, the oxides of the main substances are mixed to produce glass mass and melted in the furnace. The melting point depends on the additives changing the properties of the glass.

The resulting mass is molded in several ways: making sheet glass, giving various shapes (dishes, plafoons for chandeliers, glasses for watches and so on), making blanks for subsequent piece processing with glass fiber and much more.

Lomonosov M. V., Kamgorodsky N. I., was brought to the development of glassmodels, the Chinese N.I., I was interested in the practical side of the issue of Mendeleev D.I. and others. It is easy to define the material "silicate glass". What it is? Material having an amorphous-crystalline structure of the structure obtained by the melt of mixed oxides followed by cooling.

Making glass

The main element for the production of glass is quartz sand, to which at least five ingredients in proportions are added.

The main formulation, depending on the further purpose of using the resulting material, add additives: oxidizing agents, silencers, discolorations, dyes, accelerators, and so on. Oxides of metals are used as dyes.

For example, copper will paint the glass of glass in red, iron will give a blue or yellow shade, cobalt oxides will give blue color, and colloidal silver - yellow.

The prepared dry mixture is loaded into a glass-woven furnace, where the raw material melts at a temperature of 1200-1600 ° C, the process takes from 12 to 96 hours.

The manufacture of glass is completed by the rapid cooling process, only on this condition of the glass massess will receive all the required qualities: transparency, mechanical resistance and additional properties laid in the process of mixing oxides.

Types of silicate glass

The release of the material refers to energy-processes, and the silicate industry is engaged in it. The production of glass in the industry occurs in a tunnel-type furnaces with uninterrupted support for the specified temperature. From one end of the furnace, a dry mixture is loaded, the finished material is unloaded at the output.

In connection with the extensive use in various industries, silicate glass can be divided into types:

  • Quartz without impurities of sodium oxides, potassium is a premise glass. It has high resistance to heating and excellent electrical properties. Of the shortcomings, it is difficult to process.
  • Sodium, potassium, sodium-potassium - alkaline glass. The most common type of material suitable for widespread use. It makes glass for aquarium, window, dishes and so on.
  • Alkaline with high oxides of heavy metals. For example, a lead additive is necessary to obtain a crystal, optical glass.

Multipurpose use

Silicate glass has a number of properties that allow you to use it in a wide range. Each of its qualities can be strengthened, in connection with which additional possibilities are opened. For example, the glass covered with amalgam serves as a mirror, and can also be used as a solar battery under certain conditions.

The hygienic and practical properties of glass dishes are indisputable. The material does not have porosity, and therefore, it does not multiply pathogenic bacteria, it is easy to clean, resistant to the effects of any food. The heat-resistant tableware from it is multitasking: you can bake at high temperatures in the oven or put in the freezer without any damage.

Layout and thickness

The material has a different thickness, which determines its capabilities. Listed, 2 mm thick, suitable for windows. The glass for aquarium is used at least 5 mm, depending on the volume of water poured into the container. However, the aquarists increasingly come to the idea that the use of an acrylic counterpart is much more convenient, especially if it takes a capacity of 500 liters and more.

The use of laminated material (triplex) expands the possibilities: glued with a polymer film with a polymer film practically uncomprehendingly, it is safe because it does not crumble. Two silicate glasses with a thickness of 10 mm thick with a film layer are almost impossible to smash the hammer with a film layer. From the triplex make transparent bridges, facing facades of buildings, fencing pools, and so on.

Properties

The use of materials on a silicate basis finds its place in construction. They are used not only for the manufacture of windows, but also as additional protection and the binder. So, liquid glass is treated with the blocks of the foundation, which makes them resistant to moisture, fungus, temperature fluctuations, etc.

Bagged translucent or matte material is used in everyday life, furniture doors, shower cabins, facades of buildings and so on are made of it.

Silicate glass properties have the following:

  • Transparency.
  • Reflection.
  • Ecology.
  • Heat resistance.
  • Resistance to aggressive chemical environment.
  • Resistance to natural aggressive environment.
  • Durability.
  • Low thermal conductivity.

Additional qualities, such as stability to loads and mechanical damage, give the material by hardening. The essence of the process consists in rapid heating and the same rapid cooling in a short period of time. Strength rises 4-5 times. It makes glass for watches, canvas doors, furniture, intricate partitions.

Production of products

Silicate glassware and shopping products are produced in several basic ways:

  • Prescription. A viscous mass is poured into a fixed mold, after which it is set to specific parameters using the moving part of the form (PUNSON). The mold on the inner surface may have a drawing, which in the process of stamping is transferred to the outer part of the product.
  • Blowing. Varies on mechanical and manual. The wall thickness of the product varies from 1 mm to 10 mm. In this way, vases, bottles, glasses, glasses are made in this way. Manual blowing is art. Masters-glassware create unique works using a combination of transparent and colored mass, include metal, natural raw materials, gold, and so on. Identical manual blast products is not found.
  • Casting. Mainly used for the manufacture of figures, figurines. In industry, the method of casting is made optical glass.
  • Multistage articulation. Parts produced in two technologies are used: blowing and pressing. For example, the container of the glass is blowing out, and the leg is pressed, the finished parts are connected.

Silicate glass - fertile material for many types of decoration. Distinguish hot and cold decoration.

To hot and belong:

  • Staining in the mass of metal oxides.
  • Mixing a mass of different colors with further form of shape (Venetian glass with divorces).
  • Retaining. Mass formulates in the product, cooled sharply, as a result of which surface cracks appear, the product is paid to the fastening.
  • Fusing.
  • Forming a hot screen of cords, threads with a subsequent additive on the product.
  • Formation of an additional edge shape in the process of blasting. It is achieved by using tools.

Cold decor forms:

  • Mechanical: grinding, engraving, diamond facet, sandblasting.
  • Chemicals: etching by platitive acid.
  • Overhead: Painting, drawing decol, silkotrafare printing, metallization, plasma spraying, painted with chandelier paints.

Other types of glass

Modern technologies allowed to give a silicate glass additional qualities. Of these, the most interesting and in demand are:

Smart glass: type of material changing its properties under the influence of external conditions. For example, under the influence of electric current, the product becomes matte, when the circuit is disconnected, it returns to a transparent state.

Fiberglass (fiberglass): obtained by pulling material to thin (measured in microns) threads. Of these, they create a fairly flexible material. Used for the production of fiber, insulating materials, etc.

Lighted glass: Conventional silicate glass has a greenish or grayish tint, noticeable, if you look at the cut. As a result, the canvas turns out to be a little painted.

To avoid this effect, the reflectors neutralizing the unwanted color are added during the manufacture.

It differs from the usual material with increased light light, the transmission of paints without color change.

A source: http://fb.ru/article/250755/silikatnoe-steklo-proizvodstvo-i-ispolzovanie.

What kind of dishes is harmful to health: what can you not cook food

To avoid many diseases, it is important not only to eat right, but also know which dishes is harmful to health, because the material from which it is made is capable of distinguishing hazardous substances.

Is there a safe health utensil

Among the wide range of products for storing and cooking safe, cast iron, clay, enameled dishes and the one, which was made of stainless steel are considered safe. In all other cases, harmful utensils are able to have a negative impact on the human body:

  • Allocate poisonous substances when heated;
  • Cause severe allergies or food poisoning;
  • Oxidize, with the result that harmful substances are activated.

Of course, when choosing any dishes, you should pay attention not only to the material from which it is manufactured, but also on the composition, which is usually indicated on the labels. For example, poor-quality stainless steel may contain nickel, which when heated food gives it a metal taste.

In which dishes can not be prepared

Cookware, harmful to health: myth or reality

Cast iron dishes: benefit and harm

Products from cast iron is best used for frying or cooking, because food does not burn in it, and the material itself is environmentally friendly and with time it only becomes stronger and safer.

Aluminum dishes: harm and benefit

It is precisely such a dishes that is most harmful, because when heated, metal ions actively distinguishes. Under the influence of acids contained in milk or any other product, aluminum goes into food.

  • In such saucers, it is strictly forbidden to fry and cook soups or vegetables.
  • Daily use of aluminum utensils often leads to food poisoning.

Copper dishes: benefit and harm

Made of copper dishes are completely harmless to the body, because even if its ions fall into it, they are very quickly displayed.

  • Despite this, it has a significant drawback: when cooking fruits or vegetables, copper destroys the greatest part of the vitamins contained in them;
  • If there are acids in food, it can enter with them to the reaction.

Damage to crystal dishes

Most often, people drink drinks from crystal dishes, and in this case it is considered safe.

  • If we store liquids in it, then it begins to highlight the lead, which further causes the body harm.

Silicone dishes: benefit and harm

Despite the fact that silicone contains chrome, cobalt, copper and other components made from it baking molds can be safely used:

  • Due to the special technologies and requirements that are presented to the production of such utensils, the release of harmful substances under the influence of temperatures does not occur.

Enameled dishes: benefit and harm

Initially enameled dishes were intended to protect against metal ions in food, but everything depends on the color of the coating:

  • Safe is considered blue, black, cream, white or gray blue color,
  • From a red, yellow or brown hue is to refuse - they contain many dyes and have low protective properties.

Silver dishes: benefit and harm

There was a long time made of silver, was considered the best: it not only looks good, but also kills all sorts of bacteria, thereby preventing them from entering the human body.

  • Most recently, in some media, information appeared that this metal is not able to maintain useful elements and delete harmful, but there is no direct evidence.

Than it is harmful to the utensils from polypropylene

Plastic dishes possesses three degrees of heat resistance:

In the first case, there are meter containers that can be placed in the microwave, and in all others - all sorts of bowls, cups, forks, spoons, etc. Regardless of the ability to withstand high temperatures, it is not recommended to warm up dishes in such a container, because at high temperatures plastic can melt and highlight harmful elements.

Polypropylene dishes can also be used for storage.

Stainless steel dishes (stainless steel): harm and benefits

Steel dishes can be safely used for frying and cooking first dishes, but it is impossible to store food in it, because it is capable of separating nickel penetrating into the dishes.

Melchioric dishes

For several centuries, the products from Melchior have been very popular, and absolutely no wonder: despite the fact that they are made of copper and nickel alloy, they are safe for human health - it's only enough to clean them from the plaque.

Pewter

Check what your% fat in the body, BMI and other important parameters

In general, the tin utensil is safe, however, if there are impurities from lead, from which it darkens with time, it is best to refuse it.

Cookware from glass ceramics

The cookware made from ceramics is harmless only if there are no chips and cracks on it, otherwise salts of heavy metals can enter the body.

  • In addition, inside the plates from such a material there may be drawings applied by paints containing lead, so it is not recommended for use for direct intended purpose.

Galvanized dishes

  • Such dishes are not suitable for heat treatment products, because When heated, it highlights zinc.
  • Store food in it is not worth the same considerations.

Teflon Coating Cookware

Now the Teflon is covered not only a frying pan, but also other kitchen utensils, but if there is a violation of the integrity of the coating, it is best to get rid of such dishes, because it provokes the development of obesity and oncological diseases.

Dishes from melamine

  • If there is damage on such a dishes, it begins to highlight a dangerous poison - formaldehyde. In this case, it needs to be refused.
  • It is also not suitable for frying or cooking.

Ceramic dishes: harm and benefits

  • Unlike Teflon, covered with thermalone dishes is more harmless, because Its negative impact on human health is no confirmed.
  • In addition, it can be heated to 400 degrees and more.

Glass dishes: harm or benefit

Like ceramic tanks, baked, mugs, and glass plates do not bring any harm to health, because they are manufactured without using human elements negatively affecting the body.

Acrylic dishes

  • If you do not warm up in such utensils, it is quite safe.
  • Unlike harmful disposable dishes, it can be used repeatedly, and in this she obviously wins.

Opal dishes: harm and benefits

Thanks to modern technologies, dishes from opal glass is very easy and elegant:

  • You can apply different drawings on it, which does not affect its strength.
  • It practically has no pore, which allows it to be considered completely safe for storing food.
  • It moves well with temperatures, from high to low. Pots made of matte glass are perfect for use in microwave ovens.
  • It has low thermal conductivity, which allows for a long time to keep food hot.
  • It can be sink well, it is easy to contain in perfect cleanliness.
  • Resistant to apply any detergents, they do not apply apparently harm.
  • Possessing increased strength, this dishes can be stored in stacks, which saves a place in your kitchen.

What dishes is not harmful to health

Nickel-plated dishes are considered harmful. It contains nickel, but it is the most common. Prepare and store food is best in tanks made of the following materials:

  • Clay;
  • Cast iron;
  • Stainless steel (it is impossible to leave me dishes for a long time).

Can utensils be harmful to health: what should be stored and cook food

Harm plastic bottles and plastic film: what's the danger

The composition of the plastic container may contain a chemical substance Bisphenol-A - a synthetic analogue of a female sex hormone, which can penetrate into water or liquid, and then to the human body.

If you drink water from plastic bottles, thereby increasing the content of bisphenol in the body:

  • Harvard University scientists conducted research and found out: the use of cold plastic fluids during just one week increases the level of bisphenol in the urine by 69%.
  • The release of bisphenol depends on temperature. The higher the temperature, the more active the water contamination be bisphenol from plastic. That is, the usual summer heat can increase the concentration in the water of harmful substances in tens of times.
  • If you fill with hot liquid or specially warm plastic bottles, then the selection of bisphenol will increase to 55 times! This fact should be known to parents who warm milk in plastic bottles for their children.
  • Increased bisphenol concentration increases the likelihood of prostate cancer in men and has a negative impact on male health, as the hormonal background is disturbed.
  • Pregnant women are generally contraindicated to drink water from plastic bottles, because due to poisoning with bisphenol, the child may be born with congenital defects.

(5 , 5.00. out of 5)

A source: http://happy-womens.com/kakaya-posuda-vredna-doma-zdorovya.html

Types and glass properties

Types and glass properties

Quartz glass is obtained by melting silica high purity raw materials. Quartz glass consists of SiO2 silicon dioxide and is the most heat-resistant Glass: The coefficient of its linear expansion in the range of 0 - 1000 ° C is only 6x10-7. Therefore, the hot quartz glass, lowered in cold water, is not cracking.

The temperature of the softening of quartz glass, at which the dynamic viscosity 107 PUAZ (10 PAHS) is reached 1250 ° C. . In the absence of significant pressure drops, quartz products can be used before this temperature. The full melting of quartz glass, when it can be made from it, it occurs at 1500-1600 ° C.

Known Two varieties Quartz glass: transparent quartz I. milky matte .

The turbidity of the latter is caused by the abundance of the smallest air bubbles, which, when weaving, glass can not be removed due to the high viscosity of the melt.

Vegetable quartz glass products have almost the same properties as products from transparent quartz, with the exception of optical properties and greater gas permeability.

The surface of quartz glass has a minor adsorption The ability to various gases and moisture, but has the highest gas permeability among all glasses at elevated temperature. For example, through a quartz tube with walls with a thickness of 1 mm and the surface 100 cm2 at 750 ° C, 0.1 cm3 H2 penetrates in one hour if the pressure drop is 1 atm (0.1 MPa).

Quartz glass should be carefully protected from any contaminants, even such as fat traces of hands. Before heating the quartz glasses, the opaque spots available on it are removed using dilute fluorine hydrochloric acid, and fat-ethanol or acetone.

Quartz glass Resistant in medium of all acids except HF and H3RO4. It does not affect 1200 ° C C12 and HCL, up to 250 ° C dry F2. Neutral aqueous solutions NAF and SiF4 destroy the quartz glass when heated. It is completely unsuitable for work with aqueous solutions and melts of alkali metal hydroxides.

Quartz glass at high temperatures retains its electrical insulating properties. Its specific electrical resistance at 1000 ° C is 106 OMXM.

Normal glass

The usual glasses include lime-sodium, lime-kaliya, lime-sodium-potassium.

Lime-sodium ( soda ), or sodium-calcium-magnesium-silicate, glass is used to develop window glasses, glass containers, dining rooms.

Lime-kaliovoy ( Potashny ), or potassium-calcium-magnesium-silicate, glass has a higher heat resistance, high gloss and transparency; Used to generate high-quality dishes.

Lime-sodium-potassium ( Sodo-Potashnya ), or sodium-potassium-calcium-magnesium-silicate, glass has increased chemical resistance, due to the mixture of sodium and potassium oxides; The most common in the production of dishes.

Borosilicate glass

Glasses with a high content of SiO2, low-alkali metal and significant - boron oxide B2O3 are called borosilicate. Boric anhydride acts as a flux for silica, so that the alkali metal content in the mixture can be sharply reduced without an excessive increase in melting temperature.

In 1915 firm Corning Glass Warzks started producing first borosilicate glass under the trade name Pyrex . Glass brand Pyrex It is a borosilicate glass with a content of at least 80% SiO2, 12-13% B2O3, 3-4% Na2O and 1-2% AL2O3.

It is known under different names: Corning (USA), Durant fifty, Jenskoye G20 glass (Germany), Gizil , Monex. (England), TC (Russia), Socuille (France), Simax (Czech Republic).

Depending on the specific composition, the resistance to the thermal shrinking of such glasses is 2-5 times higher than those of lime or lead; They are usually far superior to other glasses in chemical resistance and have properties useful for use in electrical engineering.

Temperature of the softening glass "Pyrex" to dynamic viscosity in 1011 Poise (1010 Paz) is 580-590 ° C. Nevertheless, glass is suitable for work at temperatures up to 800 ° C, but without overpressure.

When using vacuum, the temperature of the products from glass "Pyrex" should not be lifted above 650 ° C. Unlike quartz glass "Pyrex" to 600 ° C is almost impenetrable for H2, not, O2 and N2.

Fluid hydrogen and heated phosphoric acid, as well as aqueous solutions (even 5%) con and NaOH, and even more so, their melts, destroy the glass "Pyrex".

Crystal glass

Crystal glasses (Crystal) - high-grade glasses with special brilliance and ability to strongly refract light. Split lead-containing and lead-free crystal glasses.

Lead-containing crystal glasses - Lead-potassium glasses, produced with the addition of oxo001flons of lead, boron and zinc.

Are characterized by an increase in the AU001F, a beautiful game of light, melodic sound when hit; Apply for the production of high-qualityU001fined dishes and ornamental products.

The greatest application has a crystal with a content from 18 to 24% of lead oxides and 14-16.5% potassium oxide (easy001fine).

The lead-free crystal glasses include barite, lanthanne and others.

Baritova Glass contains an increased barium oxide. Has the best brilliance, more highly001fka light-racability and specific weight of compounds of conventional glasses, apply as Optu001Fic и Special glass.

Lantanova The glass contains Lantane Lantane Oxide and lanthanides (Lantane compounds with aluminum, copper, etc.). LA2O3 increases light effect. Features high quality; Used as Optical .

Glass properties

Density Glass depends on its chemical composition. Density - the ratio of the mass of the glass at a given temperature to its volume depends on the composition of the glass (the greater the content of heavy metals, the glass is denser), on the nature of the heat treatment and ranges from 2 to 6 (g / cm3). The density is a constant value, knowing it, one can judge the composition of the glass.

The smallest density has quartz Glass - from 2 to 2.1 (g / cm3), borosilicate The glass has a density of 2.23 g / cm3, the greatest - optical glasses with a high content of lead oxides - to 6 (g / cm3). Density Lime-sodium Glass is about 2.5 g / cm3, Crystal - 3 (g / cm3) and above.

The table value of the glass density is the range from 2.4 to 2.8 g / cm3.

Strength . The strength is the ability of the material to resist internal stresses resulting from the action of external loads. Strength is characterized by the limness of strength.

The tensile strength of the compression for various types of glass ranges from 50 to 200 kgf / mm2. The strength of the glass has an influence of its chemical composition. Thus, SAO and B2O3 oxides significantly increase the strength, RBO and AL2O3 to a lesser extent, MGO, ZnO and Fe2O3 almost do not change it.

From the mechanical properties of glass tensile strength is one of the most important. It is explained by the fact that glass works on the stretching worse than compression. Usually, the tensile glass strength is 3.5-10 kgf / mm2, i.e., 15-20 times less than compression.

The chemical composition affects the strength of glass when stretching as well as on compressive strength.

Hardness Glasses, like many other properties, depends on impurities. On the scale of the Moos, it is 6-7 units, which is between the hardness of apatite and quartz. The hardness of various types of glass depends on its chemical composition.

The greatest hardness has glass with high silica content - quartz и borosilicate .

An increase in the content of alkaline oxides and lead oxides reduces the hardness; Lead crystal has the smallest hardness.

Fragility - The glass property is collapsed under the action of a shock load without plastic deformation. The glass resistance to the blow depends not only on its thickness, but also on the shape of the product, the least resistant to the blow of a flat-shaped product. To increase the strength to the blow to the glass, magnesium, aluminum and boric anhydride are injected into the glass.

The heterogeneity of the glassass, the presence of defects (stones, crystallization and other) increases sharply fragility. The resistance of the glass strikes increases with its annealing.

In the region of relatively low temperatures (below the melting point), the glass is destroyed from mechanical exposure without noticeable plastic deformation and, thus, refers to perfectly fragile materials (along with diamond and quartz). This property can be reflected by the specific shock viscosity.

As in previous cases, the change in the chemical composition allows you to regulate this property: for example, the introduction of a bromine increases the strength to the blow almost twice. For silicate glasses, the shock viscosity is from 1.5 to 2 kN / m, which is 100 times inferior to the gland.

For fragility, glasses affect homogeneity, configuration and thickness of products: the less extraneous inclusions in the glass, the more it is uniform, the higher its fragility. The fragility of glasses is practically independent of the composition. With an increase in the glass B2O3, SiO2, Al2O3, ZRO2, MGO, fragility slightly decreases.

Transparency - One of the most important optical properties of glass. Determined by the ratio of the amount of rays through the glass to the entire light flow. Depends on the composition of the glass, processing its surface, thickness and other indicators. In the presence of impurities of iron oxide transparency decreases.

Heat resistance Glasses is characterized by its ability to withstand, not destroying, sharp changes in temperature and is an important indicator of glass quality.

Depends on the thermal conductivity, the thermal expansion coefficient and glass thickness, form and size of the product, surface processing, composition of glass, defects. The heat resistance is higher than the above thermal conductivity and below the thermal expansion coefficient and the heat capacity of the glass.

Tolstone glass is less heat-resistant than thin. The most heat-resistant glass with a high content of silica, titanium and boron. Low heat resistance has a glass with a high content of sodium oxides, calcium and lead. Crystal Less thermosetics than ordinary glass.

Heat resistance ordinary Glass ranges within 90-250 ° C, and quartz : 800-1000 ° C. Annealing in special furnaces increases heat resistance by 2.5-3 times.

Thermal conductivity - This is the ability of the material, in this case, glass, heat without moving the substance of this material. The glass thermal conductivity coefficient is 1-1.15 W / MK.

Heat expansion - This is an increase in linear body sizes when heated. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion of glasses ranges from 5 · 10-7 to 200 · 10-7. The lowest linear expansion coefficient has a quartz glass - 5.8 · 10-7.

The magnitude of the thermal expansion coefficient of glass largely depends on its chemical composition. Most strongly on thermal expansion of glasses affect alkaline oxides: the greater the content of them in the glass, the greater the thermal expansion coefficient.

SiO2, Al2O3, MGO refractory oxides, and B2O3, as a rule, lower the thermal expansion coefficient.

Elasticity - body ability to return to its initial form after eliminating the efforts that caused body deformation.

Elasticity is characterized by a modulus of elasticity. The modulus of elasticity is the value equal to the ratio ratio to the elastic relative deformation caused by them. The modulus of elasticity in the axial stretching - compression (the Jung module, or normal elastic module) and the shift module characterizing the body resistance to the shear or chip and equal to the ratio of the tangent of the shift angle.

Depending on the chemical composition, the modulus of normal elasticity of glasses ranges in the range of 4.8x104 ... 8,3x104, shift module -2x104-4,5x104 MPa. Quartz glass has an elastic module 71.4x103 MPa. The modules of elasticity and shear are somewhat rising when replacing SiO2 on CAO, B2O3, AL2O3, MGO, WA, ZNO, PBO.

Corning glass production properties

Glass code 0080 7740 7800 7913 0211
A type Silicate Boro silicate Boro silicate 96% Silicata Zinc-titanium
Color Transparent Transparent Transparent Transparent Transparent
Thermal extension (multiplied by 10-7 cm / cm / ° C) 0-300 ° C. 93.5 32.5 55. 7.5 73.8
25 ° C, up to the pace. Throy 105. 35. 53. 5,52.
Upper limit of the working pace. For annealed glass (for mechanical properties) Norm. Operation, ° С 110. 230. 200. 900.
Extreme. Operation, ° С 460. 490. 460. 1200.
Upper limit of the working pace. for tempered glass (for mechanical properties) Norm. Operation, ° С 220. 260.
Extreme. Operation, ° С 250. 290.
6.4 mm thick, ° С fifty 130.
12.7 mm thick, ° С 35. 90.
Heat resistance, ° С sixteen 54. 33. 220.
Density, g / cm3 2.47 2,23 2.34 2,18 2.57
Optical sensitivity coefficient for stresses, (nm / cm) / (kg / mm2) 277. 394. 319. 361.

A source: https://www.dia-m.ru/page.php?pageid=30

Glass is one of the popular, sought-after materials for different spheres of life. It is used in construction and finishing work, it makes works of applied and high art from it, used in the space industry. This is one of the available, simple materials. The most common appearance with which we most often come across and use products from it - silicate glass.

What it is?

The ancient glass of glass is considered beads found during excavations in Egypt, scientists believe that the find more than five thousand years. Since then, the composition of the glass has changed little. The main element of the material is quartz sand (SI0 2) - silicate. It is added to it soda, Potash, limestone and several more elements.

In industry, the oxides of the main substances are mixed to produce glass mass and melted in the furnace. The melting point depends on the additives changing the properties of the glass. The resulting mass is molded in several ways: making sheet glass, giving various shapes (dishes, plafoons for chandeliers, glasses for watches and so on), making blanks for subsequent piece processing with glass fiber and much more.

Lomonosov M. V., Kamgorodsky N. I., was brought to the development of glassmodels, the Chinese N.I., I was interested in the practical side of the issue of Mendeleev D.I. and others. It is easy to define the material "silicate glass". What it is? Material having an amorphous-crystalline structure of the structure obtained by the melt of mixed oxides followed by cooling.

Silicate glass

Making glass

The main element for the production of glass is quartz sand, to which at least five ingredients in proportions are added. The main formulation, depending on the further purpose of using the resulting material, add additives: oxidizing agents, silencers, discolorations, dyes, accelerators, and so on. Oxides of metals are used as dyes. For example, copper will paint the glass of glass in red, iron will give a blue or yellow shade, cobalt oxides will give blue color, and colloidal silver - yellow.

The prepared dry mixture is loaded into a glass-woven furnace, where the raw material melts at a temperature of 1200-1600 ° C, the process takes from 12 to 96 hours. The manufacture of glass is completed by the rapid cooling process, only on this condition of the glass massess will receive all the required qualities: transparency, mechanical resistance and additional properties laid in the process of mixing oxides.

Making glass

Types of silicate glass

The release of the material refers to energy-processes, and the silicate industry is engaged in it. The production of glass in the industry occurs in a tunnel-type furnaces with uninterrupted support for the specified temperature. From one end of the furnace, a dry mixture is loaded, the finished material is unloaded at the output.

In connection with the extensive use in various industries, silicate glass can be divided into types:

  • Quartz without impurities of sodium oxides, potassium is a premise glass. It has high resistance to heating and excellent electrical properties. Of the shortcomings, it is difficult to process.
  • Sodium, potassium, sodium-potassium - alkaline glass. The most common type of material suitable for widespread use. It makes glass for aquarium, window, dishes and so on.
  • Alkaline with high oxides of heavy metals. For example, a lead additive is necessary to obtain a crystal, optical glass.
Glass for aquarium

Multipurpose use

Silicate glass has a number of properties that allow you to use it in a wide range. Each of its qualities can be strengthened, in connection with which additional possibilities are opened. For example, the glass covered with amalgam serves as a mirror, and can also be used as a solar battery under certain conditions.

The hygienic and practical properties of glass dishes are indisputable. The material does not have porosity, and therefore, it does not multiply pathogenic bacteria, it is easy to clean, resistant to the effects of any food. The heat-resistant tableware from it is multitasking: you can bake at high temperatures in the oven or put in the freezer without any damage.

Silicate glass Properties

Layout and thickness

The material has a different thickness, which determines its capabilities. Listed, 2 mm thick, suitable for windows. The glass for aquarium is used at least 5 mm, depending on the volume of water poured into the container. However, the aquarists increasingly come to the idea that the use of an acrylic counterpart is much more convenient, especially if it takes a capacity of 500 liters and more.

The use of laminated material (triplex) expands the possibilities: glued with a polymer film with a polymer film practically uncomprehendingly, it is safe because it does not crumble. Two silicate glasses with a thickness of 10 mm thick with a film layer are almost impossible to smash the hammer with a film layer. From the triplex make transparent bridges, facing facades of buildings, fencing pools, and so on.

Glass production

Properties

The use of materials on a silicate basis finds its place in construction. They are used not only for the manufacture of windows, but also as additional protection and the binder. So, liquid glass is treated with the blocks of the foundation, which makes them resistant to moisture, fungus, temperature fluctuations, etc.

Bagged translucent or matte material is used in everyday life, furniture doors, shower cabins, facades of buildings and so on are made of it.

Silicate glass properties have the following:

  • Transparency.
  • Reflection.
  • Ecology.
  • Heat resistance.
  • Resistance to aggressive chemical environment.
  • Resistance to natural aggressive environment.
  • Durability.
  • Low thermal conductivity.

Additional qualities, such as stability to loads and mechanical damage, give the material by hardening. The essence of the process consists in rapid heating and the same rapid cooling in a short period of time. Strength rises 4-5 times. It makes glass for watches, canvas doors, furniture, intricate partitions.

Silicate glassware

Production of products

Silicate glassware and shopping products are produced in several basic ways:

  • Prescription. A viscous mass is poured into a fixed mold, after which it is set to specific parameters using the moving part of the form (PUNSON). The mold on the inner surface may have a drawing, which in the process of stamping is transferred to the outer part of the product.
  • Blowing. Varies on mechanical and manual. The wall thickness of the product varies from 1 mm to 10 mm. In this way, vases, bottles, glasses, glasses are made in this way. Manual blowing is art. Masters-glassware create unique works using a combination of transparent and colored mass, include metal, natural raw materials, gold, and so on. Identical manual blast products is not found.
  • Casting. Mainly used for the manufacture of figures, figurines. In industry, the method of casting is made optical glass.
  • Multistage articulation. Parts produced in two technologies are used: blowing and pressing. For example, the container of the glass is blowing out, and the leg is pressed, the finished parts are connected.
Glass for watch

Decorative treatment

Silicate glass - fertile material for many types of decoration. Distinguish hot and cold decoration.

To hot and belong:

  • Staining in the mass of metal oxides.
  • Mixing a mass of different colors with further form of shape (Venetian glass with divorces).
  • Retaining. Mass formulates in the product, cooled sharply, as a result of which surface cracks appear, the product is paid to the fastening.
  • Fusing.
  • Forming a hot screen of cords, threads with a subsequent additive on the product.
  • Formation of an additional edge shape in the process of blasting. It is achieved by using tools.

Cold decor forms:

  • Mechanical: grinding, engraving, diamond facet, sandblasting.
  • Chemicals: etching by platitive acid.
  • Overhead: Painting, drawing decol, silkotrafare printing, metallization, plasma spraying, painted with chandelier paints.
Silicate industry glass production

Other types of glass

Modern technologies allowed to give a silicate glass additional qualities. Of these, the most interesting and in demand are:

Smart glass: Type of material changing its properties under the influence of external conditions. For example, under the influence of electric current, the product becomes matte, when the circuit is disconnected, it returns to a transparent state.

Fiberglass (fiberglass): Get the method of pulling the material into thin (measured in microns) threads. Of these, they create a fairly flexible material. Used for the production of fiber, insulating materials, etc.

Lighted glass: The usual silicate glass has a greenish or grayish tint, noticeable, if you look at the cut. As a result, the canvas turns out to be a little painted. To avoid this effect, the reflectors neutralizing the unwanted color are added during the manufacture. It differs from the usual material with increased light light, the transmission of paints without color change.

Glass density Depends on the chemical composition and for conventional construction glass is 2400 ... 2600 kg / m 2. Window glass density - 2550 kg / m 3. High density differ glass containing lead oxide ("Bohemian Crystal") - more than 3000 kg / m 3. Porosity and water absorption of glass are almost equal to 0%.

Mechanical properties

Glass in building structures are more often exposed to bending, stretching and impact and less often compression, so the main indicators defining its mechanical properties should be considered tensile strength and fragility.

Theoretical Glass strength when tensile - (10 ... 12) × 103 MPa. Almost this value is below 200 ... 300 times and ranges from 30 to 60 MPa. This is explained by the fact that the glass has weakened areas (micronegeneration, surface defects, internal stresses). The larger the size of the glassware, the most likely the presence of such sites. An example of the dependence of the strength of the glass on the size of the test product is the glass fiber.

Glass strength with compression high - 900 ... 1000 MPa, i.e. Almost like steel and cast iron. In the temperature range from -50 to + 70 ° C, glass strength practically does not change.

Fragility - The main lack of glass. The main indicator of fragility is the ratio of the modulus of elasticity to tensile strength E / RP. In glass it is 1300 ... 1500 (in steel 400 ... 460, rubber 0.4 ... 0,6). In addition, the homogeneity of the structure (homogeneity) of the glass contributes to the unimpeded development of cracks, which is a prerequisite for the manifestation of fragility.

Hardness - Polysmonds in a chemical composition, a substance close to the fieldspaps, the same hardness as in these minerals, and, depending on the chemical composition, is within 5 ... 7 on the Moos scale.

Optical properties The glasses are characterized by light-rescue (transparency), lightwriting, reflection, dispersion, etc. Conventional silicate glasses, except for special (see below), pass the entire visible part of the spectrum (up to 88 ... 92%) and practically does not miss ultraviolet and infrared rays. The refractive index of the building glass ( n = 1.50 ... 1.52) Determines the power of reflected light and light light glass at different angles of falling light When the angle is changed from the incidence of light from 0 to 75º, the glass light decreases from 90 to 50%.

Thermal conductivity Different types of glass depends little on their composition and is 0.6 ... 0.8W / (M ∙ K), which is almost 10 times lower than that of similar crystalline minerals. For example, the thermal conductivity of the quartz crystal is 7.2 W / (M ∙ K).

Soundproofing ability Glasses are quite high. A glass of 1 cm thick for sound insulation approximately corresponds to a brick wall in the Pollipich - 12 cm.

Chemical resistance Silicate glass is one of its most unique properties. The glass is well with the action of water, alkalis and acids (with the exception of fluid and phosphoric). It is explained by the fact that under the action of water and aqueous solutions from the outer layer of glass, Na + and Ca ++ ions are washed out and a chemically resistant film enriched with SiO is formed. 2. This film protects the glass from further destruction.

Glass leafy

The main type of glass used in the construction glass used for glazing window and doorways, showcases, etc. Along with this, the release of sheet glass is developing increasingly developing with special properties, such as heat-absorbing, reflective, sewn, protective, decorative, etc.

Sheet window glass It produces six grades thick 2; 2.5; 3; four; 5 and 6 mm. List width - 250 ... 1600 mm, length up to 2200 mm.

Mass of 1 M. 2-2 ... 5 kg. Svetopropuska - at least 87%. Defects of window glass include gas inclusions (bubbles), a pig and "strength" (surface irregularities).

Showcase glass - leaf glass 6 ... 10 mm thick and up to 3500 × 6000 mm. Showcase glass, as a rule, make polished.

Light scattering glass misses light, but does not give through visibility. It can be matte or patterned. Matte is obtained by sandblasting or processing in plastic acid pairs (HF). Patterned is obtained by horizontal rolled products on curly rollers. The original method is used to produce glass called "Frost". The pattern is obtained using carbon black glue applied to the surface of the glass.

Envoy glass - A glass that transmits a large proportion of ultraviolet rays (45 ... 75%) is obtained from raw materials with minimal impurities of iron, chromium and titanium oxides. Such glasses are used in medical institutions, for glazing with greenhouses, etc.

Special sheet glass or functional glass Not only misses light, but also performs other important features:

· Heat insulation in winter and heat protection in the summer;

· Soundproofing and protection against leakage of information;

· Protection against mechanical destruction;

· Creating a decorative effect.

Heat insulating glass They differ from the usual in that due to the special thin coating on the inside of the glass, they reduce the share of heat lost through glass by reflecting the infrared part of the spectrum ("heat rays") back inwards. The lighting of such glasses is slightly lower than that of the usual, - 72 ... 79%.

Heat shielding (sunscreen) glass Perform a reverse function: they reflect part of the radiant energy falling on them, not passing it into the room. This is achieved by two methods:

· The finest metal layer working as a mirror is applied to the surface of the glass;

· On the surface of the glass is created by a metal oxide layer, which retains some of the sun's rays and giving glass gray, greenish or bronze tint.

Protective glasses - Glasses with increased strength properties that do not split into dangerous acute fragments. For obtaining glasses, more durable and safe compared to conventional sheet glass, there are several ways.

Strained glass Get special heat treatment of glass. At the same time, compressive stresses are created in it, due to which the bending strength of 5 ... 8 times and strength to blow 4 ... 6 times. In case of destruction, such glass decays into small (5 ... 10 mm) pieces of cubic shape, safe for humans. In construction, such glasses are used for a device of transparent doors, partitions, and the like.

Reinforced glass Get by pressing in the molten glass mass during its rolled net grid made of chromed steel wire. This grid holds glass fragments when damaged it.

Laminated glass (from Lat. . Lamina. -Theless) implements the paradoxical idea of ​​hardening glass using an elastic polymer film pressed between glass layers. When ulare on glass in it there is a crack that goes deep into the glass. When the crack meets the polymer film on its path, the latter, deforming, absorbs the energy of the crack development and stops it. In this case, the inside of the glass remains the whole. Such glasses were called Triplex.

A similar composite sheet material of three layers of glass and two layers of a polymer film makes glass bulletproof.

The most modern variants of special glasses are manufactured in such a way that the functional layers (reflective, heat-shielding, etc.) are applied to the polymer film, and they turn out to be inside a layered design that protects them from damage. Such a method is more technologically, since the spraying of metal layers or oxides is easier to produce on a polymer film than on a glass sheet.

Facing glass

The glass has an extremely high resistance to the action of chemically aggressive media, high hardness, zero water absorption (i.e., absolute frost resistance) and at the same time can be painted into various colors with paints that do not lose brightness from atmospheric influences. Due to the smoothness of the surface of the pollution, they practically do not delay on the glass and are easily washed off with water. Such a combination allows you to get high-quality finishing materials from glass.

Sheet decorative glass In recent years, it is widely used in the construction of public buildings. Metallized mirror glasses of various shades (golden, blue, gray, etc.) are particularly popular. They allow us to solve both the architectural and decorative task and ensure the lighting of the building premises (the lighting of such glasses of 0.15 ... 0.2). Buildings lined with such glasses due to their high reflective ability, visually becoming "easier"; At the same time, the space as it is expanding. This technique was repeatedly used when building skyscrapers in the United States, Canada and other countries. In Moscow, a complex of such buildings was built at the subway station "South-West".

Stemalitis - Sheets of showcase glass, covered with the inner side by ceramic paint, fixed by heat treatment. The stevertal has a rich gamut of shades (more than 25 colors). List size 400 × 900 and 1100 × 1500 mm. An example of a decoration with a stemali can be the building of the Moscow City Hall (the former building of the CEV) and the Aeroflot Hotels.

Marbet - Sheets molded from colored fine glass thickness 6 ... 12 mm. The facial surface of the march is polished, rear - corrugated. Glass can be monophonic or imitate natural marble. In addition to facing facades, marbilitis can be used for interior decoration, device of windowsill, counters, etc.

Glass tile Can be obtained by various technologies and various sizes.

Glass enameled tile It turns out to be applied to the rectangular glass tiles with a size of 100 × 100 to 200 × 200mm glaze (enamel) with subsequent heat treatment to secure it.

Tiles Glass carpet-mosaic (The size of 20 × 20 and 25 × 25 mm) produce rolled out of colored jerking glass rifled rolls. The resulting tape is flushed into tiles, which are stuck on the facial side on Kraftbumag. The resulting carpets are used when a facing device.

Smalta - Pieces of colored fine glass of irregular shape of about 20mm; Get the flushing of larger tiles. Smalt is used for the manufacture of art mosaic panels.

Grocerystallitis, glass-produce and other types of finishing tiles. They are obtained by sintering to the complete monolitization of the mixture of glass granules, rocks, etc. on a glass or ceramic bundle. These materials have properties characteristic of glass materials, although their technology is closer to ceramic.

Decorative crumb of stained glass "Ercloz" Used to obtain decorative concrete methods in the gloveness of crumb into the surface of freshly appointed concrete.

Glass products

The glass produce a wide range of products: double-glazed windows, glass blocks, fibrofilitis, roofing wavy sheets, door canvases, etc.

Double glazing - The most common type of glass products. Glass windows from two (single double glazed windows) or three (double double glazing) sheets of glass, hermetically interconnected by contour. Between the sheets of glass is a layer of dry air or inert gas.

The connection of sheets in the double-glazed car can be made with gluing, soldering or welding.

Double-glazed windows are used for glazing windows and other lighting openings. The use of double-glazed windows has significant advantages over the usual glazing sheet glass, as they do not fade, do not freeze and do not need to wipe the internal surfaces. Double-glazed windows have a low thermal conductivity, and sound permeability windows with a double-glazed window 2 ... 3 times lower than normal.

The effective use of double-glazed windows is possible in the complex with solving the quality problem of frames and window boxes. Thus, the use of aluminum and plastic frames and boxes eliminates heat loss through the lootability of the window.

Glass blocks It is advisable to use in cases where it is necessary to obtain a translucent enclosing design with good heat and sound insulation characteristics.

Glass blocks are produced from hot glass masses on press machines, molding blocks, and then welding them. When cooled in blocks, discharge is formed, providing good insulating properties. The inner surface of the blocks has a corrugation that reports the block of light scattering properties.

The size of glass blocks from 200 × 200 to 400 × 400 mm with a thickness of up to 100 mm. Blocks can be colorless and color. Sveta blocks -50 ... 60%. The coefficient of thermal conductivity is 0.4 ... 0.45 W / (M · K), i.e. Almost 2 times lower than the brick. In addition to ordinary blocks manufactured Two-chamber (with a partition that reduces the thermal conductivity of the block by almost 1.5 times) and Light directions (with special ripping, giving a directional flow of light).

Fasteptilico - Long-sized (up to 5 m) profiled elements made of glass produced by the method of horizontal rental. Stelopropilite can be a box and brand (P-shaped) profile. It is also used as glass blocks for a device of translucent fences (exterior walls and partitions) in industrial buildings, exhibition and sports halls, etc. Fasteners are installed in metal climams with plastic or rubber seals.

Fiberglass It is obtained by pressing the glass melt through the thinnest filters (holes in solid materials) with the subsequent hood and winding on the bobbins. The diameter of the fiber is 3 ... 100 μm, length - up to 20 km (for continuous fiber). Shorter (1 ... 50 cm) Staple fibers are obtained by blowing the melt of steam. Glass fabrics and glass fiber are obtained from fiberglass, which is used as a reinforcing component in the production of fiberglass or as a basis in rolled roofing and waterproofing materials (for example, glassizole, glassberoid).

Foamglo - Blocks from expanded at the time of location in the molten state of the glass. According to the structure and properties of the foam glass resembles volcanic pums and is used as thermal insulation material.

There are universal building materials that are used in the erection of any objects, regardless of their technological purpose. Silicate glass belongs to such elements. This is one of the most ancient materials, which mankind has learned to produce from time immemorial. Moreover, according to the composition of the current substance, there is little different from the oldest. Only the technology of manufacture and useless impurities in the composition has become much smaller.

Making material

Glass

Phased it looks like this:

  • 1. The main components for production are quartz sand, limestone and soda. Of these, with the help of special equipment, a homogeneous mass is prepared - the mixture, into which all the indicated elements are included in chopped form.
  • 2. Further, the prepared composition enters the furnace, where, under the influence of a temperature of from 300 to 2500 degrees, it occurs to a homogeneous liquid mass. Such a wide range is caused by the presence of a large amount of glass grades and depends on the additives used. Often those perform carbide metals.
  • 3. Further, the resulting substance enters the forms that will correspond to the type of finished product. There, glass is frozen with a temperature sufficient to prevent the crystallization of the components components.
  • 4. The resulting material will not necessarily be transparent. This parameter also depends on the use of additional elements when smelting.

Professional chemists call the sodium-calcium-silicate glass material. This is due to the fact that the substance is an alloy of three oxides - monovalent sodium, bivalent calcium and tetravalent silicon. Moreover, in one structural unit, it is contained in one share of metal oxides and at once six shares of silicon oxide. It is precisely that all the properties that glass possesses.

Glass production

Other metals and their connections can also be included in the silicate glass. They are added to change the technical characteristics and give the material new parameters that could help him in performing direct functions. Non-metallic elements are applied much less frequently and constitute mainly fluorides.

The fact is that glass has a lot of various industries, so it has a lot of brands. These products are distinguished by their transparency, strength, hardness, color. For each individual indicator corresponds to a special chemical element. Therefore, any non-standard model will cost more than the usual glass obtained from limestone, sand and soda.

Liquid glass

Liquid glass

This composition is also widely used in the construction industry. In particular, it serves for the manufacture of refractory materials. After processing with a liquid concrete, a tree, paint ceases to be afraid of an open fire. The substance also strengthens the weak soils, inclined to weathering useful trace elements. Used as the main component in the manufacture of heat-resistant ceramics for the smelting of metal forms.

One of the main characteristics of the material is a silicate liquid glass module. This indicator characterizes the percentage of silicon oxide to sodium oxide in the composition. The value only shows the yield of a silica product, but does not determine the quality of the solution itself. For calculations, chemical research methods are used, which are conducted using special equipment.

Product specifications

  • • The physical density is in the range of 2500-2600 kilograms per cubic meter and does not depend on the temperature conditions of the atmosphere;
  • • The elastic module (Jung module) - 70 gigapascal;
  • • a shift module that characterizes the ability to resist the shift deformation is at the mark of 26.2 gigapascals;
  • • The value of the relative cross-compression ratio to relative longitudinal stretching or the Poisson coefficient is 0.25;
  • • The strength limit is 1000 megapascal, but when hardening, it is possible to increase the basic indicator 3-4 times. There are utensils from silicate glass in every home, so many know that if you drop the glass on the floor, it is not always broken, because for its manufacture, they use a hardened brand;
  • • The hardness indicator on the MOOS scale - 7 units;
  • • In terms of fragility, glass refers to the category of perfectly fragile materials, which means its breakdown without visible deformation;
  • • thermal conductivity is extremely low - 0.0023 cal / (cm * s * hail);
  • • The melting point is in the range of 400-600 degrees Celsius.

The price of such glass per square meter depends on the brand.

Glass is an inorganic durable, fragile, impermeable for natural elements, transparent or translucent material, which is used in many areas of our daily life. Talented glaziers and Eraglass designers work with glass every day, and its unique qualities are perceived by them as proper. Here are some interesting facts about this material.

How to make glass

Glass composition

Glass It is made of natural raw materials, which melts at a very high temperature. The main ingredient of glass is sand, but, technically, the main component is the component of sand - quartz, it is silicon dioxide (SiO2), silica or quartz sand.

Glass composition

Quartz connects with other ingredients that may vary. These are elements such as:

  • soda calcined (sodium carbonate);
  • dolomite (mineral from carbonate class);
  • Limestone (calcium carbonate);
  • Bulletin (secondary glass);
  • Other chemicals (metal oxides, cobalt).

The glass is performed by cooling molten at a temperature of +300 to +2500 ° C components, with sufficient speed to prevent the formation of visible crystals. One sand is enough for the manufacture of glass, however the temperature necessary for its melting will be much higher. For this reason, the soda is added as a modifier. Limestone makes it more durable. Optimal composition: about 75% silica, 10% of lime and 15% soda.

Silicate glass

Glass compositions are designed to exercise its various physical, chemical and optical properties. A variety of applications requires certain types of glass and production processes. In industrial production, several compositions are usually used. We will briefly stop on silicate glass.

Glass compositions

Silicate glass is a common glass that meets everywhere. The list of products is almost infinite: from dishes, decor objects, glasses, laboratory vessels, incandescent lamps, windows and up to hundreds of other items that we directly or indirectly use in our daily life.

Main types:

  • soda-lime;
  • potash-lime;
  • Potash-lead.

Industrial glass is divided into a construction, technical, electrovacuum, carnoe, laboratory, safe, optical, varietal.

Structure of glass

Glass can be formed naturally; For example, in volcanoes or when zipper hits a sandy beach, and it was produced by people for thousands of years. Thus, it can be surprising that our understanding of the accurate structure of glass is not complete even after a long time. Very often the glass is indicated as amorphous. This word came from the Greek language and means "without form." Thus, we have a rough idea that glass is somehow shapeless.

Structure of glass

Structure of glass It is still not fixed. There is discrepancies even between its main mass and a surface layer. This is due to the fact that various glasses have different composition. In addition, its structure is influenced by the technological process.

Location of atoms in glass

Structure of glass

Left: Crystal Form, Right: Amorphous Form.

Glass has some shade of mysticism - probably because of its strange chemical and physical behavior. It is reliable enough to protect us, but it can crash for thousands of fragments. It is made of opaque sand, but completely transparent. And perhaps the most striking - it looks and behaves like a solid, but in fact it is a disguised form of a strange liquid. As a result, it can be poured, blow, press and mold.

Chemistry glass

The chemical composition of the glass dictates its physical properties and characteristics. Depending on the main component, they are: oxide, fluoride, sulphide ...

Chemistry glass

Oxide

Are one of the few solid bodies that let light in the visible region of the spectrum. There are various types of oxide glass. The name depends on the content of different oxides.

Among oxide glasses phosphate и Silicate Glasses are the two most important materials, and they are widely used. Compared to silicate glasses, phosphate is limited in use, since they are lower than the glass transition temperature. And silicate possess excellent chemical resistance.

Glass lenses

Germanate - The closest analogues of silicate. High price and small chemical resistance significantly limit their application. Have good refraction and lighting. Used for optical devices.

Borosilicate Glass contains at least 5% boron oxide. It is resistant to extreme temperatures, as well as to chemical corrosion.

Borosilicate glass

These properties make borosilicate ideal for laboratory use. Many lenses for microscopes and telescopes are made of borosilicate glass.

Fluoride

Fluoride glasses and optical fibers are used for the manufacture of polyvolocon information transmission systems. They have an extensive range of spectral transmission, significant radiation resistance and sensitivity. In addition, fluoride fibers can be used for the directional transmission of light waves in media such as lasers, which is required for medical applications (in ophthalmology and dentistry).

Fluoride glass

Sulfide

Sulfide (sulphide-zinc) glass is obtained by adding oxide and zinc sulfide into a glass mass, which give the material a variety of shades. It is widely used in the manufacture of decor elements, souvenirs and dishes.

Fluoride glass

Special types of glass

Exist Various types of glass used for different purposes. The development of the glass industry and the production of multifunction glasses allow you to solve architectural tasks in the building structures of Eraglass, as well as use opportunities for special technical and scientific applications.

Flat glass

Flat or flat glass is most common in windows, doors, automotive glasses, mirrors and solar panels. It is made by distributing liquid glass to the desired thickness and cooling into the final product. Then it can be bent.

How to make glass

Glass windows Combines several glass panels into a single window system. Most have double or triple glazing. Glass sheets in double-glazed windows are separated by a gasket and a fixed layer of air or vacuum.

Wall glass blocks

Glass blocks are made of two different halves, they are compressed and annealed together in the process of melting glass. They are used in architectural purposes in the construction of walls, light hatches, etc. They provide aesthetic appearance when passing light.

Glass blocks

Armored

Bulletin glass has many applications in various industries, including construction. It is made from multilayer glass made according to special technology. Armored glass is used in buildings requiring security, such as jewelry shops, banks and embassies.

Armored glass

Quartz

This is a single-component material that is one of the most valuable materials for science and industry. Raw materials - a natural crystal extracted from the Earth in the form of a mountain crystal or pegmatite quartz. It is crushed to fine-grained granulate and melted. Used for the manufacture of parts of accurate mechanics (quartz watches), flask of ultraviolet lamps, chemical containers, equipment of laboratories.

Quartz glass

Glass ceramics

The glass ceramics was developed at the Corning factory and has the general properties of glass and polycrystalline materials. Initially used in mirrors and attachments of astronomical telescopes. It became known for the glass-ceramic cooking panels, as well as dishes and high-performance reflectors for digital projectors.

glass ceramics

The glass ceramics has an amorphous phase and one or more crystalline phases. It is made by "controlled crystallization" (as opposed to spontaneous), which is usually not required in the production of glass.

White-sensitive glass

Photosensitive glass, also known as photodstruised or photosensitive, is a crystal clear glass belonging to the family of lithium-silicate. Provides the opportunity to obtain an image by forming microscopic metal particles in glass after exposure to electromagnetic radiation. It is a very promising material for the production of complex microsystem components.

White-sensitive glass

Fiberglass

The molten glass is passed through ultra-thin holes, creating glass threads. Then they can be weaved into large samples of the material or leave in a plump substance used for heat or sound insulation. Fiberglass products include mounting boards, swimming pools, doors, surfboards, sports equipment, boat housing and external car parts.

fiberglass

Liquid glass

Silicon-based coating or liquid glass is perhaps the most important nanotechnology product. It fills the pores and disadvantages, and can protect any surface from any damage, such as water, ultraviolet radiation, dirt, heat and bacterial infections. Air-permeable coating has a thickness of 500 times thinner of the human hair.

liquid glass

Crystal

Lead crystal glass is a special type of glass that is used for the manufacture of various decorative elements. When cutting the material, the optical phenomenon of complete internal reflection occurs very sharply, and thus a pleasant dazzling shine is created.

crystal

Bohemian

Often called bohemian crystal. This is glass produced in the regions of the Czech Republic and Silesia. It has a centuries-old history of recognition worldwide for its high quality, skill, beauty and innovative design. Features: Manual cutting, engraving, blown and painted decorative glass.

Crystal glasses

Glass is one of those magic materials that we consider to see for granted, but it steadily serves the goal for which it is intended, provided that you use it with caution!

Types of silicate glasses

What is a silicate glass, what the process of its production looks like, where this material applies - questions that consider in this article.

Types of glass, composition and characteristics

Silicate glass is a technically correct name of the most ordinary glass made of quartz sand. The classic method of obtaining silicate glass uses the following substances: Sand quartz, soda and calcium carbonate.

The main types of silicate glass:

  1. Potash limestone.
  2. Sodo-limestone.
  3. Potash-lead sediment.

Consider the main components:

  • The main component of silicate glass is silicon dioxide, its mixture contains about 70-75%. This substance is obtained from quartz sand, which is pre-cleaned from any contamination and granulated.
  • The second component of silicate glass is calcium oxide, which is responsible for shine and resistance. In the manufacture of silicate glass uses conventional lime. Previously, calcium oxide was obtained from the crushed stone of marine shells. For the first time add chalk to the glass melt became Bohemian glasswers in the seventeenth century.
  • And the third component of the glass mixture is alkali metal oxides. Potassium oxide or sodium oxide can be used. These elements make a mixture of milk-smelting and further release. The content of alkali metal oxides does not exceed 17%. Production use soda or potash, which at high temperatures decompose on oxides.

Production of silicate glass

The manufacture of silicate glass is as follows:

  • The main components are crushed into a homogeneousmass or bat. For this purpose, special equipment use.
  • At the next stage, the composition enters the furnace, where the advantage of high temperature, which reaches 2500 degrees, is mixed up to a homogeneously liquid amorphous mass.
  • Next, the molten mixture is poured into forms that correspond to the type of prepared product.
  • After that, the glass is made to frozen and take a shape.
  • The glass obtained according to such technology will optionally be transparent - this indicator is adjusted for the receipt of certain elements when smelting.

You can order the processing of silicate glass and the manufacture of any glass designs on the website of the company "Technopark". With a complete list of services, we invite you to get acquainted in the catalog.

Transparent products are widely used to design interiors. It can be furniture, doors, partitions, ceilings, decor elements, aquariums, lighting. At the same time, on the household level, we rarely wonder what all these items are made from. But transparent materials are quite varying in their properties, durability, reliability. The most common types of raw materials for the manufacture of transparent interior items is silicate and acrylic glass.

What is silicate glass?

The very glass, which we all familiar with childhood and is called silicate or natural glass. The main ingredient for its production is the usual quartz sand (silicon dioxide), which melts at high temperatures. Soda, limestone, metal oxides, secondary glass, as well as other types of raw materials can be added as additives.

There are many species of silicate glass, for example, tempered, reinforced, triplex, stained glass. We have already considered how you can use them in the interior and in the manufacture of furniture.

Example of silicate glass in the interior photo

What is acrylic glass?

He has many titles: acrylic, plexiglas, plexiglas, acrylate. The basis of all these materials is the same substance - polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). That is, in fact - acrylic glass is a polymer, thermoplastic plastic. But at the same time, its properties are quite different from the characteristics of the types of plastics familiar to us.

Acrylic glass, as well as silicate, has many variations. It, for example, can be painted in any color or tint. Black and white acrylic glass are very popular. In addition, there are materials with a fluorescent effect. Acrylic sheets can be made corrugated, with a convex pattern.

Acrylic glass ball photo

Silicate and acrylic glass: comparison of the main characteristics

Despite the external similarity, silicate and acrylic glass differ from each other very much. This applies to the physical properties of materials, and their possibilities in terms of processing and practical application.

Physical characteristics of silicate and acrylic glass

  • The weight of acrylic glass is significantly less - 2-5 times. It greatly simplifies its transportation and movement, especially if we are talking about large-sized objects.
  • Resistance to scratches and small damage is much higher at silicate glass. Any product from acrylic over time is covered with a shallow scratch mesh, which does not affect its transparency. True, the problem is solved quite simply - acrylic is easily polished. While the damaged surface of silicate glass is almost impossible to save.
  • Silicate glass is a fragility symbol. The usual uncrowdered glass can be broken even with a very easy blow. Acrylic is more resistant to shock loads (5 times). In addition, during the destruction, it does not form sharp fragments.
  • Both types of glass are characterized by high light-throughput. But, no matter how unexpectedly, she acrylic is higher.
  • Materials have a different refractive factor. This is very important, for example, in the production of aquariums. In acrylic, this coefficient is close to the refractive index of water. And the silicate glass and water they differ quite very much. Therefore, acrylic aquariums have practically no image distortion.
  • Natural silicate glass has a light greenish tint, especially noticeable on the cut. Acrylic is absolutely Babeless.

Aquarium photo

Features of the processing and practical use of silicate and acrylic glass

  • Acrylic is much more plastic material. When heated it can be bent on a very small area. Therefore, from acrylic you can make a huge number of complexes in the form of products. Bent silicate glass - a molded - a very expensive product. In addition, it does not allow to achieve such detail when flexible.
  • Buckle acrylic does not lose its optical properties, and does not distort the image.
  • Acrylic glass can be easily machined. For example, milling, cutting, grinding, drawing or driving holes. Conventional glass due to its fragility is practically not amenable to such types of processing.
  • Acrylic, like any plastic, is afraid of high temperatures. He is fuel, and can easily ignore and melt when heated. While the silicate glass is easily and without consequences withstands heating. This property is successfully used in the production of furniture, such as dining tables with a glass tabletop, not afraid of contact with hot dishes.
  • Conventional glass is one of the most inert materials. It is not afraid of the effects of chemically active substances. That is why it is actively used in the manufacture of laboratory dishes. In contrast to him, the acrylic glass can be damaged by alcohol or acetone.
  • Silicate glass is a rather cheap material. But because of his fragility, it is very difficult to transport, which significantly increases the cost of logistics. Acrylic is more expensive, but in this case there are less additional expenses.

Glass aquarium photo

Silicate and acrylic glass: what is better?

As can be seen, each of the materials has many advantages and minuses. Therefore, it is impossible to definitely answer this question, it all depends on the specific situation.

For the manufacture of objects of complex shapes - curved, with small detail, milled - acrylic glass is much better suited. In addition, it weighs less and better confront shock loads.

At the same time, the silicate glass sheet will cost cheaper, in addition, it is less exposed to the appearance of scratches and is not afraid of high temperatures. And the problem with fragility successfully solves the hardened grade glass.

Therefore, most often acrylic is used to make such complex objects such as chairs, bent coffee tables, shelves and even whole lockers, various accessories and decor items. And where you need just a large sheet of transparent material, for example, for the dining table table top, glass doors of cabinets or for partitions, silicate glass is used.

Acrylic glass - photo stools

Finally

Acrylic and ordinary silicate glass are very similar in appearance. But they are fundamentally different materials possessing very different properties. At the same time, both of these types of raw materials allow you to create excellent transparent products for our dwellings. Visually light, elegant, non-cluttering space. Transparent furnishings fit perfectly into modern interiors, add to air, make them spacious and lighter.

Acrylic glass - balloon photo

See other articles on the topic:

Glass in the interior

Glass furniture: varieties and use options

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