Detailed description, how to grow champignons at home - B-Mag Business Journal

How to grow champignons at home: the selection of the room for mushrooms + how to cook the substrate + where to lay compost + after how many days the mushroom is fruits + how to grow champignons in the house of the house + is it possible to grow mushrooms in bags + attachments to business for the cultivation of champignons.

There are many culinary recipes in which the presence of mushrooms is simply necessary. Champignons are eating marinated, fried, boiled, in salads, main dishes and hot lunches.

With this demand, the sale of this product can be a good business idea, so today we will share you a secret with you, how to grow champignons at home, while spending the minimum of personal cash savings.

How to grow champignons at home and which room is suitable for the mushroom?

In nature, the mushroom grade Champignon grows everywhere - field, meadow, forest, garden, garden, etc. If you want to grow a champignon at home, you will need to prepare a special room for this.

The best basement is suitable, especially if the floor is earthen. You can try to grow products in the garage, shed or greenhouse, but it will be risky.

The main requirement for the premises is ventilation, as well as disinfection. Mushroom quickly absorbs all microbes, fungal infections, etc. As a result, you risk poisoning yourself and your consumers.

How the right disinfection of the placement of mushrooms is carried out:

  • If you have chosen a basement, a barine or garage, walls and a ceiling for your mushrooms, the walls and the ceiling. Add a copper vigor into a whipple.

    Tells should be prepared for use with the addition of such components:

    • 2-3 kg hawed lime;
    • 1 water bucket (10 liters);
    • 100 grams of copper mood.
  • Do not forget during the disinfection of the room to wear a respiratory mask.

  • Another option how to disinfect the room is to produce 350 grams of chlorine lime in 1 bucket of water (10 liters). Walls are processed by irrigation.
  • If it is possible, then treat the basement with a sulfuric checker. After such a strong disinfection, it is necessary to root a premise.
  • Now let's talk about the ventilation of the room where champignons will grow. Fresh air should always come to the basement, but at the same time eliminate the formation of drafts. Ventilation pipes must be with a filter that will not give to get into the basement insect.

    If you are planning a whole production to be able to grow large champignon batch, then install the production fans that will stand above each rack. Try to install air purifier with a replaceable filter.

    The mushroom is obliged to constantly control the humidity indoors and the air temperature. This will help such equipment as a thermometer and a hygrometer. If champignons grow even in winter, it will have to purchase a fireplace for heating basement.

    The humidity of the room should be within 70-85%, and the temperature Celsius - from +12 to +20 maximum, depending on the ripening period of champignons.

    The only thing that mushrooms do not need is light. They will raise even in the dark.

    Exemplary cost of expenses in the preparation of the premises:

    Article expenditure number Amount (rub.)
    TOTAL: 10 560 rubles
    1. Fan for industrial premises VENTILJATOR-DLJA-PROIZVODSTVENNOGO-POMESHHENIJA15 000
    2. Thermo-hygrometer Termo-Gigrometr.11 000
    4. Chlorine lime Hlornaja-izvest1 pack. 60.
    5. Air purifier Pribor-Dlja-Ochistki-vozduha14 500.

    1) Prepare the right substrate for growing champignons at home.

    Now we will tell you how to grow champignons at home and make the substrate correctly.

    The ideal ratio on which champignons will be produced is "one to three" - most of the horse manure and the third part of the straw.

    Instead of horse-drying, it is sometimes used chicken litter or a cow manure. Replacing such an important component can lead to a deterioration of yield, it is better not to risk.

    The main rule is to prepare the substrate only on the street or in a place that has good ventilation. In the process of ripening, which lasts 3 weeks, poisonous gas (ammonia and carbon dioxide) will be released. They are harmful to health, so this process is better carried out in the open air.

    Let's look at the steps how the substrate is prepared at home:

    Day Type of work Description of the procedure
    1 day Machine straw We take a large container and soaked the straw. It will take 200-300 liters of water by 100 kg of straw.
    2 day Stacker laying We put the layers of straw and manure (100 kg) in turn. There must be 6 layers. Between the layers of straw and manure you need to add urea (2 kg) and water.
    7-8 day Interruption №1 Add gypsum (8 kg) and water, and after all mix.
    12-13 days Interruption number 2. We add water, superphosphate (2 kg) and chalk (5 kg).
    16-17 days Interruption number 3. Check if you need to add water.
    20-21 days Interruption No. 4. We again check whether water is needed. If necessary, add liquid and mix all.
    22 day Laying Cooking boxes, racks or bags for packing compost.

    Note that the temperature of the substrate rises to 70-80 degrees above Celsius. As a result, we will get 300 kilograms of compost, and this is about 3 square meters of area for landing and growing champignons at home.

    How to recognize high-quality compost? He should not be glued to his hands, but at the same time he is wet and leaves the traces of dirt.

    If during the cooking of soil for champignons you added more water than it was assumed, then spread the substrate and dry a little. Make sure that the moisture does not decrease below the necessary one. The optimal indicator is 60%.

    You can buy a finished briquette of soils with a sowing mycelium in order to grow champignons at home. Its price is from 250 rubles per 10 kg. That is, for 300 kg will have to give 45,000 rubles.

    It will be much cheaper to personally look for everything you need, it will not be much difficult if you live in rural areas. In addition, such important components, as a straw and manure, you may give free or for a small fee.

    Name Weight Cost, rub.)
    TOTAL: 445 rubles
    Superphosphate 2 kg 100
    Gypsum 8 kg 120.
    a piece of chalk 5 kg 180.
    Urea 2 kg 45.

    2) We prepare the basis for booking compost.

    Depending on what conditions you will grown champignons, the soil laying will have its own characteristics.

    Which business to open in the village: 12 ideas

    Option for preparation and location of compost:

  • If you are going to plant champignons right on the floor of the cellar, then pour the compost with a layer of 70 centimeters. Be sure to form a garden.
  • Second option - Prepare racks with sides. Pour the soil with a layer of 45 cm.
  • You can grow a mushroom right in wooden or metal boxes. Make a layer of soil 25 cm, and drawers (box capacity - 4 buckets) put on each other stacks.
  • How to grow mushroom champignons at home outdoor? You can also do this on the outdoor soil or greenhouse. In this case, the compost is laying directly to the ground, the layer is 30 cm. The landing in the soil is an early spring. Be sure to make a canopy to protect the champignon from precipitation.
  • Compost in any case, you need to go well and tightly, its surface must be smooth.

    Detailed instructions, how to grow champignons at home

    Now proceed to the item how to grow champignons at home. Before this, we consider how the Misselia landing itself occurs, the so-called. The embryos of the mushroom.

    Step-by-step description of the landing of mycelium at home:

  • We need to buy mycelium from the supplier. A 1 square meter will need 500 grams of champignon varieties. For half a kilogram, we will pay approximately 250 - 300 rubles.

    Mycelium happens grain и compost . Grain stored half a year in a cold place at +4 degrees. Mycelium compost can be stored at room temperature for about 20 days. Great yield gives grain mycelium.

  • Micelij.

  • On the soil, we make snones in a depth of 5 cm, the distance between them is 20 cm. On a box with mycelium, it is indicated how many grains should be in each individual dimmer.
  • A few days later you will see how champignons germinate. On the surface there will be white threads. The humidity in the room should be about 70-85%. If the soil is dry, then pour it with water.
  • Green growing business

  • Mushrooms will actively grow on 10-12 days after disembarking. During this period, the temperature in the cellar should be reconciled +20, you can even +25 above Celsius.
  • Be sure to sprinkle compost on 3-5 cm landfill. It is prepared from 1 part of sand and the ninth part of the peat. For 3 square meters you will need 150 kilograms.

  • After three days, reducate the temperature in the room. It should be within 12-16 degrees above zero.
  • After 3 months, the first wave of ripening will go. There may be from 5 to 8 to only 8. From one square square can be collected 6-10 kg. Between the fees of champignons, make breaks in 5-7 days, and be sure to sprinkle each time after harvesting the surface of the land.
  • Note! The fungus can not be cut in any way, it is only twisted so that harmful bacteria and microbes do not fall into the soil. It is important that he doses. What signs can I understand it? The film between the leg and the cap must not be damaged, and firmly connect these 2 pieces of champignon.

    How to grow champignons at home in bags?

    Increase the yield of champignons at home will help a polymer bag. It is used instead of adapted racks and boxes. This technique today is recognized and in demand in many countries of the world.

  • Purchase the polymer film and make a bag yourself. It should be placed from 25 to 35 kilograms of compost.
  • In the cellar bags need to be placed in parallel from each other or in a checker order, i.e. There must be space between them.
  • The height of bags and their width can be different. The main thing is that you can work comfortably with them, and there was no close in the basement.
  • The film is not expensive - 50 m2 will cost approximately 100 rubles.

    If problems arise and one of the bags will be infected with infection, then it must be thrown out. If you use racks, then to decoke the mushroom, you have to throw out the entire shelf and re-made a substrate.

    Technology of growing mushrooms of champignons.

    How to grow mushrooms yourself? Business at home.

    Idea for business - growing mushrooms at home?

    To grow champignons at home, it will take about 60 thousand rubles, provided that the compost will be purchased ready in briquettes. If you do everything yourself, then the maximum cost of expenses is 12 thousand rubles.

    Do not forget that electricity consumption will increase due to ventilation constantly included. Together with this, the numbers in the accounts for utilities.

    And what can be said about revenue? From one square meter you can collect up to 10 kilograms of champignons, from 3, respectively, 30 kg.

    Even if you consider that champignons will produce only 5 waves, we will collect about 150 kilograms of the product as a result. The price of crude mushroom on the market is about 120 rubles per kilogram. If they can consume and sell, then you can put the price of 200 rubles per 1 liter of champignons.

    Even a small crop will be able to bring a stable profit of 30 thousand rubles. If you grow champignons at home all year round, then the income will grow, while the cost of such business is minimal. This allows us to conclude that business on mushrooms has great potential.

    A source

    Growing mushrooms at home for beginners

    Before growing the cultivation of mushrooms at home, a newcomer needs to decide what kind of best to cultivate. Experts recommend starting from simple varieties: champignons, asses or oysteries, since they need minimal conditions, and the purchase of mycelium and materials will not cost expensive (Figure 1).

    In addition, you need to provide a pre-provision of a plot or room where cultivation will be carried out. It is advisable to isolate it, as the disputes are easy to spread through the air and can easily infect the entire area.

    Conditions

    There are certain conditions for successful cultivation. First, you need to prepare yourself or buy high-quality mycelium, since it is from this that the success of the entire enterprise will depend on this.

    Note: It is better to buy ready-made mycelium from proven manufacturers, since homemade disputes often do not have sufficient quality.

    Secondly, you need to prepare a good substrate (compost), in which the mushrooms populate. It can also be prepared independently, or buy a finished sterile mixture of wood sawdust and wood trimming. This mixture is considered the best, as it allows disputes to form the so-called fungocorn, which significantly increases the crop.

    Figure 1. Methods of growing at home

    In addition, you need to prepare a suitable room. We can also grow in the garden on ordinary stumps in the garden, but it's better to equip a basement for this purpose and a greenhouse. It will be better if there is no wooden structures in the room, since in conditions of high humidity and under the action they are quickly destroyed.

    Advice

    If you are interested in the practical side of the question, we recommend familiarizing yourself with the advice of experts that will help properly organize our own small fungal farm.

    Basic Tips for Growing Mushrooms Such (Figure 2):

    1. Equip the room in such a way that it can be changed in it depending on the vegetation phase. To do this, you need to equip the system of ventilation, humidification of air and heating.
    2. Not only sawdust can be used as a substrate, but also high-quality cereal straw (rye or wheat). On the straw should not be signs of mold or rotting.
    3. In the room, install racks with tanks in which the nutritious substrate will be. The racks are better made by metal, as the tree in such conditions is rotating quickly. For oyster, the usual polyethylene bags filled with substrate are also suitable.
    Figure 2. Conditions of cultivation at home

    It is also necessary to provide a room where the crop will be stored and processed. It is important that to maintain sterility, all rooms for the preparation of the substrate, infection of the blocks of mycelium and direct maturation should be separately or separated by partitions.

    Choosing a place

    You can grow mushrooms in almost any place. But there are premises that are best suited for this purpose. For example, if you have a free basement with ventilation, cultivation can be established in it.

    Also for this purpose a greenhouse or part of the garden plot is suitable, if possible, isolated from other crops. Outdoors are best increasing weighing and whale, but when compliance with the temperature and humidity regime in such conditions, you can also grow champignons and white mushrooms.

    Easy way to grow mushrooms

    The easiest way to grow homesome mushrooms is in a jar (Figure 3). Unfortunately, in this way they are cultivated mainly, but if there is no fundamental value for you, you can easily use this method.

    See also: How and how much to store dried mushrooms at home

    A nutrient substrate is poured into the jar and boil the tanks on weak heat for two hours. When the banks are cooled, the compost surface is sown with mycelium, closing the neck of gauze and put it in a room with room temperature. The germination of the mushroom takes about 3 weeks, and during this period it is not necessary to maintain optimal lighting mode.

    Figure 3. Features of cultivation War in the bank

    When mycelium gems, the bank is transferred to the windowsill and make a little shading. They grow very quickly grow, so when their caps will seem over the neck, you need to wrap it with a dense strip of cardboard, so that the feet of mushrooms do not break. In the future, the harvest is simply cut off, and the banks are closed again and repeat the procedure. The second harvest can be collected after 2 weeks.

    What mushrooms can be grown at home

    At home, almost any varieties can be grown, but the most popular champignons, oyster, shiitaka and palls are considered. They require minimal care and investment, and the harvest is quite high, and it can be collected several times.

    More experienced mushrooms are also engaged in the cultivation of white mushrooms, chanterelles and other forest varieties at home, but this idea is more complicated in the technological plan, and requires more thorough preparation of the premises and substrate. This condition also applies to truffles - expensive mushrooms who are highly valued by gourmets around the world. Truffles grow on the roots of certain trees, and for their growth, it is necessary to provide many climatic conditions.

    Obtaining planting material

    Mushrooms are grown from the dispute and mycelium, which translated into the language of vegetable breeds is compared with seeds and seedlings. The easiest option to get planting material is to buy it from manufacturers. Spores of mushrooms are sold, special wands for impairment in hemp, ready-made grain mycelium.

    If there is no desire to spend money, grove to the fungne yourself. Mushroom pickers often bring it from the forest, create optimal conditions for breeding.

    Matchy myceliums are grown from the hats of purchased mushrooms. Let them be fresh or dry, most importantly, so that they are not subject to freezing or heat treatment. On a hat on the back, there is a sporing layer. It resembles a soft sponge. Separate a sporing layer is not necessary, it is crushed along with the entire mushroom hat. The resulting mass is immersed in a disinfected ground substrate for germination.

    More often prefer to multiply a sporing layer in aqueous sugar solution. Prepare it from 1 bucket of water, preferably gained from a reservoir or assembled during rain. Add 2 tbsp. l. Sugar and 1 g of dry crystals manganese.

    When there is a ready-made uterine mycelium, but it is not enough, proceed to breeding. It receives the so-called intermediate fungny. Myceliums are seeded in a container with a compost. Plus procedures in the speed and simplicity of obtaining intermediate mushrooms, and minus is a short shelf life.

    The reproduction of mycelium in the grain is greater popularity. Wheat is boiled about 1 hour, cool it, fill the glass jar, package or plastic container by 50%. The grain seeds the uterine material. After about 14-15 days, a fluffy white colors will appear, symbolizing the expansion of the intermediate mushroom. It is immediately sown on bags with a prepared substrate or stored in the refrigerator, but do not frozen.

    The reproduction of mycelium in the grain.

    Selection of mycelium and sowing (inoculation)

    For delicious and beautiful champignons, it is important to choose the right mycelium ( Sowing material ). Good Mycelium should be grown by special technology In special laboratories. It happens two types: grain and compost.

    Grain Mycelium Sold in polyethylene packages. The term of its shelf life is no more than six months. So that it does not deteriorate, it is necessary to store it at a temperature of 0 0 With up +4. 0 S. Mycelium Grain acquire from this calculation: four hundred grams per square meter of prepared and laid substrate.

    Grain Mycelium for Growing Champignons

    Compost mycelium Follows selling in glass containers. It helps to withstand negative external influences on Sowing material . The yield of compost mycelium is lower than that of the grain. Storage Term: At temperature 0 0 C - up to one year, at temperatures from +18 0 With up +20. 0 C - about twenty days. Material consumption: Polikylogram of mycelium per square meter of compost.

    After choosing and acquiring mycelium, you can start it. For this, they are made in the substrate of the wells at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other, a depth of 4-5 cm. Next comes the stage of introducing mycelium. If you have a compost planting material - in each well you need to make some amount of mycelium, about as a chicken egg. When landing the grain planting material, you need to throw a whole hand in my hole. From above, every filled fossa is covered with substrate.

    Independent receipt of a substrate for wood mushrooms

    The easiest way to prepare the substrate with wood mushrooms, such as thumbs or weighs. The technology is based on bearing at high wood waste temperature for their disinfect. Depending on the components used, there are two ways to prepare a substrate:

    1. Solol of cereal crops are crushed so that the straws are 2-7 cm long. First, they are washed from dust with running water, then pasteurize at a temperature of 80 оC, give time to cool and repeat again.
    2. Wood sawdust prepare for a similar method, only pasteurization is performed at a temperature of 120 оFROM.
    Preparation of subractus for mushrooms.

    Sometimes the mushrooms are lovers of straw simply boil inside a large barrel with water, then it is merged after cooling. The substrate prepared by any way is packaged by bags, at the same time sowing mycelium mushrooms.

    Independent receipt of substrate for soil fungi

    Soil mushrooms are not able to grow on some sawdust or straw. They require compost, plaster, chalk, other additives. The number and list of components depends on the agricultural types of mushrooms.

    Prepare compost under a canopy with a concrete site. In the absence of such a place, a compost capacity is used or a thick film that prevents pests and pathogenic microorganisms from the ground into the substrate substrate. The component laying is made in the next order:

    • A straw is soaked for 5 days in a large water tank. During this time, the process of overheating begins.
    • On the prepared platform layers lay the horse manure and exhaled straw. The organic is wetted with warm water from the watering can. The number of manure and straw 50/50, and everything should turn out 8 layers.
    • After 4 days, the layers were shredded, gypsum, chalk, fertilizers, additives needed for a certain type of mushrooms are introduced.
    • The following shifting is made in another 4 days. Such procedures are carried out 4, and in the last stirring, the organic is shifted by stack, expect to complete the fermentation process.
    Preparation of substrate for mushrooms.

    The substrate insists for 3 weeks, after which it is packaged in bags, placed inside the camera, where it is possible to maintain a constant temperature. Initially, it is exhibited 60 оC, daily reducing on 3 оS. Substrate will be ready when a week later, the temperature in the chamber will be reduced to 46-47 оFROM.

    Preparation of logs for growing wood mushrooms

    On the street in natural conditions, the mushroominals grown mushrooms on the logs instead of a substrate. Most often prefers the oyster, they say. The preparation process consists of the following actions:

    • Take any trimming logs with healthy wood. It is better to cut them with a length of 1 m to be lifting.
    • The logs are soaked with water for 3 days, put in a warm room or laid under the sun to evaporate excess moisture.
    • The logs perforate the electric drill in a checker order. Holes in a depth of 4 cm, a diameter of 1 cm is drilled every 10 cm.
    • The sowing material is populated into perforation, the holes are seal with plasticine or any other adhesive mass, but not containing aggressive chemistry.
    • The logs are wrapped with a film, cut through a pair of ventilation holes, sent to the room with air temperature 10-20 оFROM.
    • After 2-3 months, the fungitus will grow, it will seem on the surface of the logs of white cobweb.
    • In the shaded raw place under the trees there are wells, bury the vertically logs by 50% of the length, the soil sprinkles ashes for disinfection.

    As it dry, the soil is moisturized from the watering can, expect the appearance of fruit bodies. Autumn logs with mushrooms are covered with compost, grass, leaves. In such a state they winter until the next season.

    Creating conditions for artificial cultivation of mushrooms

    For normal growth, mushrooms need oxygen, light and increased humidity. Such conditions provide indoors, where the cultivation of fruit bodies is supposed. Lighting makes from luminescent or LED lamps emitting daylight.

    Air exchange is equipped with natural or forced ventilation. Due to this, the humidity of about 80% is maintained. If low indicators, spray water from the sprayer.

    See also:

    Eternal dried watering with their own hands.

    Temperature regime is supported defined at different stages of vegetation. The parameter varies from +12 to +27 оC. Winter to raise the temperature use heaters.

    How to grow mushrooms on the garden plot

    Grow mushrooms in the garden site is easy if you correctly choose the necessary materials and study the growing technology in detail.

    For cultivation in the country, champignons, oysteries, shiitakes and winter hassle are best suited, so we will stop more detail on the peculiarities of the cultivation of these varieties.

    Features

    Each variety requires compliance with special conditions. The most unpretentious was considered an oyster, which grows perfectly practically on any substrate and does not require the purchase of expensive equipment.

    Easy to grow and watched: for them it is enough to install a few stumps in the garden, drill holes in them and put inside mycelium. Further departure is to monitor the wood and harvest assembly, as the outdoors are rising almost as in the forest.

    Figure 4. Recommendations for crop growing in the garden

    If you plan to breed champignons or shiitake, take into account some features still have to. They need a dark and sufficiently wet room in which the temperature can be adjusted, since during the period of germination of the mushroom and the growth of the fruit bodies themselves (Figure 4).

    Conditions

    In order for growing in the garden plot successfully, you need to perform several important conditions, depending on the variety.

    To grow, you will need to comply with such rules. (Figure 5):

    • Veshinski It is better to place in the garden or basement almost without lighting. The substrate with mycelium is placed in large polyethylene packets with holes, and hang them to the ceiling, and during the harvest period, fruit bodies simply cut.
    • Champignon An open air is cultivated from May to September, and in the basement or greenhouse, where it is possible to maintain a stable temperature and humidity - and all year round. For the cultivation of champignons, it is better to install metal racks with shelves, which will be placed by mycelium with a mushroom.
    • Wood You can grow right in the garden, joining a few logs or stumps at some distance from other trees so that the disputes will not penetrate into healthy wood.
    • Shiitake Grow mainly in basements and sheds, on bars or stumps of deciduous trees. They make holes in which the mycelium is placed, and at the indoor indoors, high humidity and twilight are supported.
    Figure 5. Cultivation of oyster, oh, shampignon and shiitake at home

    It is easy to ensure optimal conditions for all varieties listed above, it is most often used for this purpose old sheds and basements, and equipment for cultivation (for example, racks or crates for the substrate) can be made by yourself.

    rules

    Growing mushrooms is an easy task, but for its successful implementation requires a certain recommendation.

    Basic rules for cultivation include :

    • Purchase or preparation of mycelium: it is better to buy a ready-made fungne, because in this case you will be sure that it is not infected with parasites or pathogenic microorganisms.
    • Preparation of the room: It is necessary to provide a temperature control sensor and holes for venting the room.
    • Billet or purchase of mycelium: it must be treated with hot water or steam for disinfection.

    It is also necessary to equip a separate room for storing and processing the crop, as well as disinfection of the substrate. At a distance from the mushroom complex, there is a place to dispose of the spent substrate.

    In the video, it is shown how you can grow white mushrooms in the country area.

    Breeding technology for different types of fungi

    You can buy mushrooms for growing at home (seeds or disputes) in a specialized store.

    You can also cook the substrate yourself. It is necessary to take a few fruit bodies collected in the forest. Pour the water caps, preferably rain or melt. Ansitate for a day, then strain, grind the pulp on the crawl, which will become a landing material. Refine water is used to moisturize the substrate for the cultivation of mushrooms.

    In order for mycelium a sprocket, it needs to be heated at a temperature of 20 ° C.

    The substrate provides the planting material with the necessary power for full growth and fruiting. For each type of mushrooms, a certain composition is applied, cooked independently.

    Lisuki

    For the cultivation of mushrooms in the country and in the city you will need a donor tree, pine or oak. A special substrate is also needed - the hard land where the fungal fell. The best curable material for mycelium is a forest grass, needles, moss. These components will land the necessary conditions, as close as possible to the natural environment.

    The cultivation of forest chanterels at home (in the basement, shed or on the windowsill) will not give positive results, since in such conditions, mycelium will not be able to fully develop.

    White

    For mycelium of white mushrooms, nutritional soil is prepared immediately before planting. Take a finished store soil containing peat (you can use the Earth for the cultivation of room colors). Mixed with 1 kg of moisturized coniferous sawdust and fallen leaves.

    Mycelium is planted at a depth of 20 cm, the diameter of the hole is 10 cm, the optimal distance is 30 cm. With regular moisture of the substrate, you can get the first harvest for the second year of cultivation. After another year the amount of crop will increase. Such a mushroom can live up to 5 years.

    Champignon

    The success of growing champignons depends on the properly cooked mushroom substrate. On his cooking will take about a month.

    1. Take an equal number of straw grain crops, horse and cow manure.
    2. Add some superphosphate and ammonium nitrate.
    3. The prepared mixture is sterilized - spilled with a solution of hated lime (10 g per 1 liter of water).

    For three days, it is regularly stirred, then mycelium is made. The landing is regularly moisturized from the sprayer with warm water. A month later, they are covered with a transparent film with openings for access of oxygen.

    When the substrate turns mycelium, it is necessary to create a coating layer of 9 parts of the moistage soil for growing seedlings and 1 part of the powder chalk. Mycelium is sprinkled with a thin layer - 2 cm. A week later, the film is cleaned, continue to regularly moisten the soil. The first fruit bodies can be shot after 3-4 weeks.

    Wood

    Winter species can be grown in different conditions - in the apartment, basement or greenhouse. When landing mycelium in a closed soil in bags lay half-giving logs, stumps with a spore bolt. The planting material is left in a greenhouse until the germination of mushrooms. They often irrigate - every hour in the period from 12 to 5 o'clock in the afternoon.

    When growing in apartment conditions, they use a substrate from sawdust of hardwood of trees and bran (3: 1). Machine in the water day, then pressed, put half the volume into three-liter banks.

    To destroy the entire pathogenic microflora, banks with a substrate are calcined in the oven. Then, after cooling, with the help of the sticks make recesses to the bottom with a diameter of 2 mm. With the help of a medical syringe into the holes lay the mycelium, closed by a caprony lid. Until the germination of the mushrooms contain at 20 ° C. Then transfer to a cooler room.

    When the tops of the banks are achieved, a paper cuffs are put on the neck, which will restrain the growth of mushrooms.

    Veshinski

    One of the most yield species that is fruiting several times a month is mesh. It is possible to grow in two ways.

    1. In the substrate from vegetable waste - stirred by salt crops, corn stiggers, sunflower husks and solid trees.
    2. In logs. Middle size fragments will be required, about 50 cm long and be sure to bore. For growing it is better to use logs with healthy trees. They are cut over a month before the landing of mycelium. Drill holes with a depth of 5 cm in a checker order, withsting the distance of 20 cm. Put the planting material in them, then sprinkle with wood sawdust. Each log on 1/3 depths are added to the ground. Further care lies in periodic irrigation. The first harvest will appear in six months.

    Ready solutions

    If you do not know where to start growing mushrooms, or we don't want to breed real production, you can familiarize yourself with the finished solutions - less costly. Most of them do not require such a number of space. However, some cannot be used to produce mushrooms on an industrial scale.

    Growing in a bank

    At home, you can grow mushrooms in the bank - this is a simple, not costly way. However, it is bad for entrepreneurship, but will be an excellent opportunity to get a delicious harvest on the family. Most often for growing mushrooms, choose such a kind as they like. But you can try and other varieties:

    1. A ready-made substrate is placed in the jar.
    2. Sterilize in a large saucepan for 2 hours.
    3. After complete cooling, they infect the substrate mycelium and wrap the neck of gauze.
    4. For 3 weeks leave the jar in the room at normal temperature.
    5. As soon as the substrate covers a white bloom, put the jar on the windowsill and darken with the help of fabric.

    After 3-4 weeks, the first mushrooms will appear. They can be cut off, leaving the fungteen untouched, and after 2 weeks they will grow again.

    Breeding mushroom farming in the country

    In the garden plot of a large size to grow oyster and champignons at home - profitable and pleasant. This does not require much effort, and the method is perfect for those who are just beginning to master mushrooms. It is enough to know which materials are required to implement this technology.

    Best of all for cultivation on the summer cottage, winter wogs, champignons, oysteries are suitable. You can also grown and shiitake, and white mushrooms, and chanterelles. However, with the last two species, things are more difficult, as they are whims.

    Features of technology

    For cultivation in the conditions of an open country area or greenhouses will require the creation of a specific environment. Oyshemks are the most unpretentious grade of mushrooms. They do not need even a specific substrate, you can use what is under rug. In addition to coniferous trees. And the harvest this species gives enough quickly.

    Shiitaki and champignons need careful care and careful attitude, not to do without greenhouses. It is also important to adjust the incoming light. For different stages of rising mushrooms, different temperatures are required. Here is a list-instruction on the cultivation of mushrooms at home:

    • Oyster. The variety requires minimal lighting or its complete absence. If you grow them in a greenhouse or basement, you should put a substrate and mycelium into packages, and hang them to the ceiling. If they are grown according to the method on the summer site, the mushrooms can be covered with foliage or sawdust.
    • Champignon. The open area is best growing in May-September. The yield is high and in the cultivation of mushrooms in the conditions of greenhouses - you only need to monitor the temperature and humidity, then you can collect them all year round. In the greenhouse, mycelium and the substrate laid on metal shelves.
    • Honey. Non-addictive species that are well coming on the stumps located in the country area. All you need is to drill holes in them and infect mycelium.
    • Shiitake. You can grow in a barn, if such is in the country. Mycelium infect stumps or bars. Shading of the room and maintaining humidity - the main requirements for good fruiting.

    All these conditions are created by simple methods. Old sheds, greenhouses and basements are well suited for growing most of the varieties of mushrooms. And the racks and boxes can be collected independently. Only watering system is required for large volumes of cultivation, several lighting lamps.

    Features of growing from dispute

    The reproduction of mushrooms by disputes is one of the most simple methods of cultivation at home. Disputes multiply in mushroom caps, so ripe, high-quality, not sore individuals are required for breeding. In the country area, they can simply scatter on the prepared ground.

    Features of growing in packages

    Dense, large polyethylene bags are also suitable for cultivation at home. The best in them are pests and shiitakes, as well as sometimes champignons:

    1. The package is put as a substrate for growing mushrooms at home or in the country area.
    2. Across the cuts are made along its entire length, but not more than 25-30 cm, depending on the size of the bag.
    3. Through cuts, mycelium is settled, after which the blocks are installed in places where they will ripe.
    4. The premises require the creation of conditions: Temperature depending on the grade of mushroom, humidity and ventilation.
    5. After the mushrooms grow up, they are simply cut straight from these holes.

    The next crop will be after 14-20 days, but with each wave it will decrease.

    Champignons on Groke

    Specific cultivation method exists for champignons. They can be planted directly on the bed. Per quarter. m will need:

    • 500 g of mycelium laid in the wells at a distance of 20 cm from each other, the depth of them is not a member of 5 cm;
    • 400 g of disputes scattered on the surface along the prepared soil.

    Choose for dilution of champignons you need one of these options. Humidity should be higher than 75%, and the temperature is about 27 degrees of heat. This method is ideal for cultivation in a greenhouse.

    After 10-15 days, the first mushroom threads appear. During this period, they need to be filled with a mixture of 5 parts of peat, 1 parts of limestone and 4 parts of the Earth. Leave for 5-7 days at temperatures up to 17 degrees of heat. If everything is done correctly, then after 3-4 months the first harvest will appear. Ripe mushrooms are unscrewed from the wells, and the resulting hole is sprinkled with the earth.

    Growing oyster and shiitake in the basement

    These species are ideal for cultivation in the basement, as they like darkness. Also in the basement it is easy to provide a stable temperature, controlled lighting and good ventilation.

    Important! When arranging zones for growing oyster and shiitak in the basement, it is necessary to keep in mind that they need 2 rooms or separated by the partition area. In the first mushrooms will germinate, and in the second - fruit.

    Both processes are required different temperatures. So, during the spread of mycelium, it should be high - from 23 to 28 degrees of heat. But at the moment when the first shoots appear, it will have to reduce to 13-18 degrees depending on the selected variety.

    The basement premises should be regularly processed from mold and microorganisms well ventilated. Only so it will be possible to get a good harvest. The next no less important condition for the dilution of moon and shiitake is the sterility of the prepared substrate.

    As with the cultivation of other fungi, the nutrient mixture is pre-sterilized by steam or boiling water, then 100% of microorganisms and larvae die. It is also important to correctly fill blocks in which mushrooms will grow:

    • The soil and the substrate should not be naked tight;
    • It is necessary to mix ingredients with loosening compositions, for example, a large chips to provide oxygen flow;
    • When detecting defects or pests, it is necessary to immediately take action;
    • When using polyethylene bags, multiple cuts are made on the sides.

    Otherwise, the rules for growing shiitake or mysteries coincide with those used in cultivation in any other way. Harvesting time, quality of fungi, their growth rate is completely identical for different methods of cultivation. It is possible to grow in the basement not only in packages, but also on logs or hemp.

    Breeding mushrooms on loggia

    If there is a warmed loggia in the apartment, the size of which allows to engage in mushrooms on it, then in one season you can get a sufficient amount of crop for the family. However, such a way is suitable for doing business.

    For growing mushrooms on the balcony, metal racks will be required, which can be bought or making themselves. The height of the shelves on them depends on which banks, pots or packages are used. Mushrooms should not be closely in place where they will grow.

    Important! The side walls and the rear panel of racks should be dense, protecting from direct sunlight. And on the front side there should be a textile curtain - from a sufficiently durable material that does not transmit light, for example, tarpaulin.

    Also the curtain will protect the mushrooms from air penetration. On the rack can be placed in several tiers - this is an ergonomic option.

    Growing on chocks using sticks with mycelium

    The features of this method are in the following technology, which can be used for growing, shiitake and oyster in the greenhouse, basement or shed:

    • Blank logs. Choose purified wood up to 100 cm long and a diameter of 10 to 20 cm. Chocks must be deciduous, without bitch, rot, branches and signs of mold. You can use only those trees that have not previously applied in the farm, old chocks will not fit.
    • Wood processing. The prepared material before boarding must be soaked in a bathroom or other capacity. From above it is covered with a press so that the logs do not flood. Leave for several hours.
    • Drying wood. After the chocks are removed from the water, they are dried in the sun for 2-3 days, then drilled. Holes must lie in a chess order at a distance of 10 cm from each other. Diameter - 8 mm, and the depth is 40 mm.
    • Installation of sticks with mycelium. Wooden sticks infected with mycelium are installed in the holes. Then chocks are wrapped with a dense cloth and put it indoors at a temperature of 25 degrees of heat.
    • Transfer logs. As soon as mycelium breaks down - it will take from 3 to 6 months - the logs are transferred to the bucket or barrels of the earth, setting vertically. Remove the fabric, and indoors maintain a temperature of 15 to 20 degrees of heat. The soil must be regularly water.

    Such logs are capable of fruit from 3 to 7 years, they look beautiful and easy to care in contrast to packages or other methods. One such log can easily be installed on the loggia.

    Mushroom box

    One of the methods of breeding mushrooms at home without prior preparation is a mushroom box. Her uniqueness is that it is only necessary to take care of conditions. That's what is part of the mushroom box:

    • Growing medium. Consists of a sterile null mixture or coffee grounds. It is harvested in a special laboratory, does not contain extraneous impurities and harmful substances, it can be used on purpose immediately.
    • Primary substrate. Peat, grains or wheat bran, coconut palm, sawdust. The species is selected depending on the variety of the grown mushroom. So, they can grow on cotton waste and rice bran, but the champignons necessarily need a dung compost.
    • Mushroom mycelium. Direct mushroom, which will develop in a medium when starting the process.

    Additionally, the box can be turned on the sprayer, and the instruction is also present.

    A similar method of growing mushrooms is ideal for breeding at home "for yourself." It will be ineffective for sale, since the cost of the fungal box is high.

    Growing champignons in boxes

    For the cultivation of champignons in boxes, like on racks or greenhouse, the main thing is that the substrate is properly correct. Prepare it preferably in vivo - in the country or in the garden:

    • Cooking manure. Mixed with a straw part of a cow or horse manure. 3% of chalk or gypsum are added, as well as 1% superphosphate and urea. For this stage, it is desirable to choose fresh straw, harvested this season. Stir the mixture for the substrate is necessary on a concrete surface, or on a tank-covered table. It is important to protect the mixture from infection with outsided microorganisms.
    • Further processing of the mixture. The mixed substrate is folded into a bunch of 1 m high, and from above are covered with a polyethylene film, after mixing. Every 4-5 days are added to the manure water. After 3 weeks it will be ready for further use. It is possible to determine the readiness in the absence of smell and elasticity. The high-quality mixture will not crumble or stick to the hands.
    • Singing the substrate. The prepared mixture is shifted into drawers without holes, you can use plastic accessories with holes for the extraneous liquid. Compost layer height should be 25 cm. Small boxes are better suited for this process. You can install boxes in the following balcony or loggia.
    • Bookmark mycelium. It is easier and efficient to use grain mycelium champignons. It is laid out on the prepared substrate and fall asleep 3-5 cm of the compost layer. Per quarter. M Square takes about 500 g of mycelium.
    • Final processing. After placing mycelium, the boxes need to be cooled or burlap. After that, the rag is lifted only for spraying from the sprayer. The room temperature needs to be maintained at 24-26 degrees of heat, not allowing drops.

    The first shoots will begin in 2 weeks, at the same time the temperature on the balcony should be reduced to 18 degrees, as well as include regular ventilation in everyday care.

    Important! Vintage can be removed from 2-3 months after landing of champignons. Cut them together with a film connecting the leg and a hat.

    If dark plates are already visible under the hat, then mushrooms are more unsuitable in food. Each fruit is twisted from the substrate, only then cut off the edge of the legs. From 1 square m You can get up to 10 kg of product.

    How to grow white mushrooms at home

    It is necessary to prepare sowing material. It happens three types: Made independently from a dispute or tubular layer or mycelium acquired in a specialized store. The peculiarity of the purchase is that it was raised in sterile conditions, and it retains the germination for a long time.

    The main thing is to pay attention to the freshness of the sowing material. It is quite possible to grow a white mushroom on a homeland area on a special substrate. It imitates the habitual fruit bodies of the soil and contains the substances necessary for the development of Borovikov.

    Important! All works in the premises for breeding white mushrooms are performed in protective clothing, gloves and a medical mask. Otherwise, there is a risk of severe lesions of the respiratory system with disputes and carbon dioxide.

    Preparation of substrate

    In the natural medium, white mushrooms prefer sandy and thin soils and grow only under certain types of trees. Therefore, the high-quality substrate should include:

    • oak sawdust, birch, aspen, maple;
    • Hivo and Cora Pine;
    • Sunflower seed husks;
    • buckwheat mezuge;
    • Solol of cereals;
    • Corn stems and cobs;
    • Sand and clay in a 4: 1 ratio (sand predefinitely need to sift from garbage and rolling to get rid of microorganisms and spores of rival mushrooms).

    All ingredients are thoroughly mixed and crushed. The resulting mixture is necessary to pour hot water (70-80 ° C) and leave for 3-4 hours. Then strain and cool to room temperature.

    Important! To check the readiness of the substrate, you need a small amount to squeeze in the fist. Properly made mixture will be slightly spring. If moisture becomes from the substrate, it is necessary to strain it once again and dried to the desired state. Otherwise, all your efforts will be reduced.

    The substrate can be purchased in a specialized store. You only need to pay attention to the integrity of the packaging and the date of manufacture. Manufacturers also offer as a substrate to use patented by Canadian specialists in the field of mushroom biology soil. It is ideal for growing white mushrooms at home. True, there is such a soil quite expensive.

    The prepared substrate is placed in polypropylene bags (hands should be in sterile gloves), cardboard boxes or wooden boxes. Bags and boxes need to be located on the shelves, withsting a distance of 5 cm from each other. In wooden boxes, horizontal holes should be provided over the entire length. Side cuts are simply made in bags with the substrate. Such ventilation is necessary to prevent the mixture.

    Selection and purchase of mycelium

    It is necessary to approach the choice of sowing material very responsibly, since it directly depends on the receipt of a rich crop of white mushrooms. Good mycelium has a saturated orange color without dark or green spots. If the material stacks the ammonia, it means that it is spoiled. Manufacturers offer mycelium in liquid form and grain. Liquid less exposed to external influences and is stored longer. However, the yield is higher at the grain.

    Important ! At 100 kg of the substrate will require 350-400 g of grain or 500 g of liquid mycelium.

    It is best to acquire sowing material in small batches of different suppliers to subsequently choose the highest quality. Experienced mushrooms believe that good myceliums produce foreign laboratories. And the most harvest species of white mushrooms is Dutch.

    Landing

    Liquid mycelium is enough just to pour over the surface of the substrate and sprinkle with a slightly soil from above, and the grain will bump onto 4-5 cm in a checker order. The optimal distance between the wells is 20-25 cm.

    For the first 1-2 weeks on top of the crops it is necessary to lay a fabric or newspaper. Periodically, observed material must be wrapped with water, it is best to make a pulverizer. Dry crust should not be formed on the surface of the substrate.

    Important! Do not allow water to cover. The humidity and temperature of the substrate must remain constant. This is a necessary condition for the germination of mushrooms.

    On the 3-4th day in a room with germinating mycelium, it is necessary to lower the temperature to 10-12 ° C, and the surface soil regularly moisturize, preventing deep penetration of water. After 2 weeks, the substrate must be sprinkled with a soil layer 3-4 cm. Prepare it from a mixture of peat and chalk (in proportion 9: 1) or peat, chalk and land (5: 1: 4).

    Further care

    With the appearance of thin white threads on the surface (the fungalum gerpet is so geribsy)) the room must be operated 2 times a day. Lighting to leave for 5-6 hours, moisture maintain at 95%. The air temperature should not exceed 18-20 ° C. The surface layer of the neuroprun is periodically added to prevent the substrate and mushroom drying.

    A month after the landing, the first young mushrooms will appear. During this period, the lighting should be left no more than 2.5-3 hours a day. The air temperature should be 16-18 ° C, the humidity is maintained at 85-90%.

    Important! In the absence of special equipment, you can place several open containers with water near the heating devices.

    Harvesting

    You can remove the harsh bowls already in 3-4 months after the landing of mycelium. To save the mushroom and subsequent crops to do it correctly:

    • Gently unscrew the fruit body;
    • sprinkle the resulting hole with a coating layer;
    • Slightly moisten the harvest.

    With proper care, white mushrooms are fruit from 2 to 5 months. From one square meter of the substrate, you can collect up to 20 kg.

    Growing champignons at home

    The cultivation of any fungi in the conditions of the apartment can provoke asthma and other pulmonary diseases, because disputes are strong allergens and in ripening are spreading around the room. Working with mushrooms, as a last resort, you can on the loggia or balcony, but best in a separate building or basement.

    The size of the harvest of champignons grown at home will depend From humidity indoors (up to 70%) and from the quality of the soil substrate .

    Prepare it for several weeks. The closed premises are not used, because it may occur to the poisoning released in the fermentation of the components of the substrate with gases. The substrate is made by composting straw and manure with the addition of fertilizers and soil decks.

    Mushroom growing room

    How to grow mushrooms at home. Ideal for growing mushrooms should be purified from dirt, ventilated with the possibility of regulating moisture and temperature.

    Professionals are usually used not one, and two rooms - a chamber for the incubation period of the mushrooms, and the premises where mushroom blocks are moved with the beginning of the germination of fruit bodies.

    This is due to the fact that the initial stage should pass in the dark and at a temperature of + 25 ° C.

    And for the final stage, periodic illumination and temperature decreased to + 16 ° C are needed. Humidity should always be supported high, and should not fall below 65%.

    Incorrectly organized ventilation will lead to a cluster near the germination places of moisture and carbon dioxide. As a result, fruit bodies may die or, at best, deform.

    Compost

    In order to create a mushroom with a size of 2.5-3 m², about 300 kg of a mixture consisting of 100 kg of dry straw, 2 kg of carbamide (urea), 2 kg of superphosphate, chalk and gypsum a total of no more than 15 kg, and the rest It should have to manure, horse or cow.

    Pre-closed by 24 hours a straw is decayed with layers that move fertilizers, manure, chalk and plaster. Each layer is additionally moistened, it takes at least 300 liters of water, and stirred. The mixture is twisted several more times and put into a bunch of about 1.5 m and a height of 1.2 m. Inside it will begin fermentation of components with heat release. Compost will be ready for use not earlier than three weeks later. During this period, it must be mixed once a week.

    Landing mycelium

    Mycelium for the cultivation of champignons is planted into compost, heated to +26 ° C. At temperatures below only two degrees, the survival rate of mycelium decreases sharply if it is higher, it will perish.

    Mycelium, grown on manure, get out of the cans and crushed into pieces of 15-20 g. Sit into pre-made recesses or grooves 1 cm depth, located in a checker order at a distance of 20 cm apart from each other. Gradually, the fungita will grow and fill all the space.

    Mixed slices of mycelium are covered with a moistened compartment and slightly tamper. Some mushrooms, when boarding mycelium, lifts the compost and put the planting material in the gap. The grain mycelium is stirred with a compost substrate, covering the compost without mycelium with a thickness of up to 5 cm.

    The soil for growing mushrooms can be decomposed on the floor of the room in the form of a variety, either by racks located on each other. The gap between the stages of racks up to 30 cm, the width of the racks to 1.5 m.

    Mushroom Planting Care

    How to grow mushrooms at home. In the first 12 days after landing, the temperature of the mushroom should be the same as at the time of the landing - from +24 to + 26 ° C. At the further stages of cultivation of mushrooms, the temperature in the range of +18 to + 20 ° C should be maintained.

    After checking the mushrooms on the survival rate, that is, on the appearance of long white threads or stains, onto its surface with a layer of 3-4 cm puffed with a loose ferrous ground mixed with peat or a sandy.

    Daily, the room where mushrooms grow should be ventilated to remove the accumulated carbon dioxide. They come into closed greenhouses before their ventilation in masks or respirators.

    Without the support of high humidity of air and moderate compost, the fungi will dry up and suspend growth. Filing mushroom beds, too, can not be avoided by the formation of molds, which can lead to the death of mushrooms.

    Growing champignons as a business

    business plan

    Features and business benefits

    Growing champignons as a business - a simple way of earning, which has a number of advantages:

    • grow champignons simply;
    • High-yielding mushrooms;
    • Cheap raw materials;
    • Business can be conducted in the village or in the city;
    • Profit goes all year round.

    The process of harvesting involves the use of manual labor. The process can be automated, but it will take expensive equipment. The growing room for growing mushrooms must be constantly removed - non-compliance with sanitary conditions provokes compost infection, soil. The quality of subsequent lots of goods may decrease, so pay attention to cleanliness.

    A competent approach to doing business will obtain about 45 kg of products with 3 square meters. Champignons can not harm human health. Exceptions are a motley and yellow variety. For cultivation for the purpose of subsequent sale, a two-port champignon is suitable (alternative name - cultural).

    Champignons for sale are grown by an industrial way. The yield is 2-4 tons, so it will be necessary for a separate plot.

    Technology growing champignons

    Mushrooms grow:

    1. On the beds. A classic low-cost way - for sale, film and compost are needed. The season is season-dependent, because it is difficult to care for the garden.
    2. In briquettes. Modern technique. The mixture is placed in briquettes, a little compressed. In this case, care for mushrooms is easier.
    3. In containers. Technology use Canadians and Americans. The soil with mycelium is placed in containers that are plastic or wooden. Capacities are treated with mold composition.
    4. In bags. The substrate is placed in packages, make a hole for the fungny and suspend or spread.
    5. Using technology. For this method, expensive equipment will be required, which will control the temperature, lighting, humidity and growth process.

    Champignons grow on a compost that is prepared from:

    • straw;
    • horse, cow manure or chicken litter;
    • Gypsum and haired lime.

    The required volume of materials depends on the area of ​​the room. The yield of mushrooms increases wheat or rye straw, but it should be fresh. Gypsum and lime - mineral supplements. They contribute to the growth of champignons. You can replace lime and gypsum bone flour. But do not use cold water for watering, because it contains chlorine.

    Compost is prepared according to the following scheme:

    1. The straw is cut into strips, soaked in water and leave for several days.
    2. Produce a bourge. It consists of manure and straw. The mass is laying down with layers, a bunch is covered with a film. The lower and the upper layers consist of straw. Covering the compost film, leave outdoor spaces on the sides - they are needed for ventilation.
    3. The substrate is interrupted. The procedure is carried out weekly. Gypsum and lime add to the mass.
    4. At the outlet get loose brown compost. The high-quality mixture has no caustic smell.
    5. Mycelium is planted on the finished compost. To obtain mycelium, the rye rye is used - so the mushroom receives extra food. Sowing material is sold in plastic boxes. Good mycelium has white color. Greenish tint says about the presence of mold.
    6. Keep mycelium in the refrigerator. It remains viable 3 months. Before planing, pull the mycelium during the day at room temperature - during this time the mushroom adapts.

    In stores sell a ready-made substrate. If you buy this, it will be possible to save time, but it promises additional constant costs.

    Locking is performed by 2 ways - sowing or wells. In the first case, mycelium is laid in a pummue with a depth of 5 cm and is covered with a similar layer of compost. Place the wells on the principle of chess. Leave the distance between them at least 20 cm. Close it with a layer of soil at 3 - 4 cm. The mushroom smashes after 2 weeks - it is called the coating. Do not allow compost drying, periodically moisturize it. Make the coating soil yourself or buy in the store in the finished form.

    Champignons grow well in a clean room without light and drafts, so ventilation is necessary. The optimal air temperature is 15 to 25 degrees, and humidity - 65 - 85%. In the first 2 weeks, maintain the maximum allowable temperature. Then reduce up to 20 degrees. The remaining time maintain the indicator within 15-17 degrees.

    Keep track of soil sterility, steam watering fluid. The first results will appear in a month. Champignons can not cut - unscrew the mushrooms. The resulting hole need to sprinkle the earth and water water. The remains of the cut champignon rot, and the new mushroom will not grow.

    Mushrooms are collected daily or with small breaks and stored in the refrigerator.

    The most damned varieties of champignons

    There are about 200 sorts of champignons. The most yields are considered:

    1. Silvan 130. The hybrid species brought American scientists. The fungus is distinguished by rapid growth, unpretentious, high yield.
    2. Somiec 512, 608. The grade is derived by French scientists. He gives a crop for a long time. However, the mushroom is demanding on the content conditions.
    3. Hauser A15. The variety is popular in America and Europe. The mushroom has a high yield, has a wide hat. It is not demanding to the conditions.

    For cultivation during the year, Horst V1 or V3 is suitable.

    What is needed to open a farm for the cultivation of champignons?

    Starting your work from scratch, act according to such a scheme:

    1. Analyze the local market, identify the ratio of supply and demand.
    2. Examine competitors and business risks.
    3. Find out the growing technology.
    4. Prepare a business plan for the cultivation of champignons.
    5. Find the room and materials.
    6. Register a business, find the staff.
    7. Find buyers products.

    Resolution

    First of all, it is necessary to arrange an IP. Apply for the opening of production, prepare a document confirming the payment of state duty.

    As an OKVED code, specify 0 1.13.6 "Growing truffles and mushrooms." You will receive permission to open a business for the cultivation and sale of mushrooms if available:

    • documents on the implementation of radiological control;
    • phytosanitary certificate;
    • certificates of compliance with GOST;
    • Instructions for the placement and transportation of mushroom products.

    As a tax system, select ECN.

    Room

    Vintage weighing 2 - 4 tons. Collected from a plot of 100 square meters. m. You can conduct business on the household plot in the presence of a suitable room, but create a large farm at home will not work, as large areas are needed. If the business goes uphill, the farm needs to expand from 100 to 300 square meters. m, so find a separate room.

    At the start it is better to rent a room, since the purchase may be inappropriate. Divide the room on 4 zones and use for:

    • making masses for growing;
    • compost pasteurization;
    • sowing mushrooms;
    • Growing mushrooms.

    Pay attention to ventilation and air humidification - install the control climate system. The appropriate room at the first stage is a greenhouse. Use it from September to February. The demand for mushrooms increases in winter - increase the volume of production during this period.

    Use film and glass greenhouses - they provide the necessary temperature and humidity. You can use polycarbonate. Organize also systems:

    • heating;
    • ventilation;
    • glaze.

    Watering can be done manually. Growing mushrooms in the basement, shed, garage or in the attic. The floor should be cement so that it does not appear mold.

    Equipment

    Purchase the following equipment:

    • air conditioning and thermohydrometer;
    • Lighting devices and scales;
    • steam generator and water heating boiler;
    • refrigerator.

    Heaters are used to provide the required temperature. Products are stored in the refrigerators. You can grow champignons in boxes, on the shelves, in pallets, bags. Purchase these containers and fill in them with a prepared substrate.

    The optimal method of growing champignons - on racks. Based on the height of the ceiling, the number of tiers determine. Thanks to the racks, you can increase the useful area of ​​up to 200 square meters. m.

    Organize watering system. It can be automatic and manual. Pensing water storage tanks and pulverizers - the latter will provide humidity.

    Take care to be warm in the room. Pipes need to lay along the walls. For lighting the area of ​​100 square meters. M will require about 10 lighting devices.

    Purchase refrigerators in an amount sufficient to store all products. The maximum shelf life is 3 days. If packing is not made, the storage luggage is used. It must be installed in it.

    Staff

    A small business on champignons does not require hiring staff. If you plan to grow mushrooms in large volumes, hire 3 - 4 people. Objectives of employees are:

    • landing mushrooms;
    • Caring for harvest;
    • Product collection;
    • premises treatment;
    • Maintain optimal conditions.

    Workers take care of mushrooms. When expanding the business, hire the driver who will deal with the delivery of products to sales points.

    Where to sell ready-made products?

    Business is inherent seasonality. The demand for champignons increases in winter and spring. In the summer and fall, the indicator falls. The reason is the appearance of forest fungi.

    You can sell mushrooms in food and network stores. They reluctantly agree to cooperation and require payment for the cauldron. Alternative - sale of mushrooms processors, dealers, cafes and restaurants. You can sell mushrooms and at its point of sale - if it is equipped with a refrigerator.

    Business on champignons: profitability and payback - calculations

    The minimum value of the cost of launching a business is 700,000 rubles. Most money will be required to purchase equipment for cultivation. Create and maintain a microclimate is difficult. Monthly expenses are about 70,000 rubles. It is necessary to pay for rent, produce utility payments, to make taxes, accrue salary personnel.

    You will collect the first harvest no earlier than 1.5 - 2 months from the moment of business launch. Therefore, launch monthly expenses for this period in the starting capital. In general, about 1 million rubles will be required to start.

    Retail price of 1 kg of champignon is 250 rubles. With wholesale sales, the indicator is reduced to 150 rubles. From 100 square meters per month will be able to get about 2000 kg of champignons. One mushroom brings 6 yields per year. The final earnings will be 1,800,000 rubles per year. Average monthly profit - 150000 rubles. The profitability of the business is 25 - 40%. Business will pay off on time from one year. With an increase in the area, income will increase, but the cost of personnel and rent will also grow.

    Indicator

    Value

    Amount of initial investment

    1 million rubles

    Monthly expenses

    70 thousand rubles

    Monthly income

    150 thousand rubles

    Net profit per month

    80 thousand rubles

    Payback period

    From 1 year

    Business risks

    Business is associated with the following risks:

    1. Mushrooms die or do not spare. This face beginner entrepreneurs, immediately organizing large mushroom plantations. As a result, the entrepreneur is losses. To minimize the risk, initially create a small company for the cultivation of mushrooms. After a couple of months you will understand whether it is worth expanding your company.
    2. Vintage dies from pests and diseases. The likelihood of damages help reduce ventilation and regular cleaning.
    3. Find buyers did not work. Take care of sales in advance. Otherwise, you grow too many champignons, and the mushrooms can not be stored for a long time.

    Creating business on champignons, consider the conditions for growing products - mushrooms are sensitive to the state of the compost and medium. Find buyers in advance, since mushrooms are a perishable product. If business brings profit, expand the area. With 300 square meters. m. You can assemble up to 100 tons. Mushrooms per year.

    Sources

    • https://mirfermera.ru/397-vyraschivanie-gribov-v-domashnih-usloviyah-dlya-novichkov.html
    • https://delairukami.ru/sad-i-ogorod/vuraschivanie_gribov/
    • https://landsdecor.com/ozelenenie/ogorod/vyrashhivanie-shampinonov-domashnix-usloviyax-novichkov.html
    • https://ogribnice.ru/vyrashhivanie-gribov-doma/pravila-i-sposoby-vyrashchivaniya-gribov-v-domashnih-usloviyah.html
    • https://vipgrib.ru/vyrashchivanie-gribov-v-domashnih-usloviyah-instrukciya-dlya-novichkov/
    • https://gribnik.info/belye-griby-v-domashnikh-usloviyakhn/
    • https://zdorovyi-stol.ru/kak-vyrastit-griby-v-domashnih-usloviyah.html.
    • https://www.equipnet.ru/org-biz/prizvodstvennyiyisvodstvennyiy --bizNes/Proizvodstvennyiy-bizVodstvennyiy-bizNes_444.html

    For most dacities, the peculiarities of growing vegetables, berries and fruits, became ordinary and not interesting. Now, modern gardeners are interested in more valuable fruits replacing meat and fish dishes in the diet. Growing mushrooms - Some people are considered as an interesting hobby, which allows to obtain a natural product by cultivation. Others and at all turn their country area into a small mushroom farm, capable of feeding the whole family.

    Rules Growing champignons at home for beginners from scratch

    Content:

    Homemade Mirbye, Hobby Benefits Choice and preparing the premises Place a fungouncing better along the fence behind the trees. Recommended content rules How to disinfect the room? Separation of space on the Miscelound zone: purchased or actually grown? Instructions for the creation of grain mycelium champignons Classic Mitcelion Recipe Champignons Substrate in Greasters, Placement Rules Growing champignons, varieties from zero in the basement in beds on the Balcony Business Profitability Video: Growing champignons for beginners at home

    Newbies are usually starting with the cultivation of simple breeds - oyster and oh. But for those who are not afraid of difficulties, and is ready to pay the maximum of time with a complex and time-consuming process, the best option will be the cultivation of champignons at home for beginners. Adhering to simple rules and recommendations, you can achieve excellent results step by step in a short time. It is possible to start germing in the basement with the help of mycelium, equipping the basement under the climate conducive to cultivation.

    Homemade Mushrooms, Hobby Benefits

    Despite the fact that in the store you can buy mushrooms for weight, the cultivation of champignons for newcomers at home has its advantages. First, the hobby fascinates with its process, allowing you to observe the germination of mushroom culture from scratch. Secondly, following all the recommendations and tips, you can provide yourself with an affordable harvest, which, if necessary, will always be at hand. Thirdly, knowing the entire history of the cultivation of champignons, the owner of the garden plot will have reliable information about the absence of harmful additives and chemistry in the fruits often falling into the purchased mushrooms in the process of transportation and improper storage.

    In addition to the advantages listed above, the most important is the rich content of vitamins, minerals and microelements. Each champignon contains a huge amount of vitamins B1, B2 and C, protein, nicotine and pantothenic acid, phosphorus, calcium and iron. The rest is pure water, the necessary organism for the full functioning and operation of the internal organs.

    Another integral advantage is the sophisticated flavor and a pleasant, storage facilities, allowing you to prepare many dishes of Russian cuisine. The first and second dishes, snacks and pies, conservation in any form, are delicious and most importantly low-calorie.

    Homemade Mushrooms, Hobby Benefits

    Selection and preparation of the room

    To start growing champignons, you must first think about the room. It should be closed, cool, but heated in the winter months. In the summer - you can grow mushrooms and on the outdoor soil when the earth warms up, and the air temperature reaches 20 degrees.

    Most often, gardeners stop at 5 premises. It may be a basement, barn and garage, cellar and even a greenhouse.

    If the mushroom is going to grow mushrooms at home for sale, he should be aware that the year-round care implies compliance with the temperature regime. Temperature should not fall below 15 degrees. The most optimal option is the gap between 17 and 20 degrees Celsius.

    In summer, you can transfer the soil infected with mycelium to the garden. Such an approach will facilitate care, replacing artificial conditions for natural. Open air will become an analogue of systematic ventilation, and a small summer rain will retain moisture.

    Helpful information! During the preparation of the premises, you should not float the floor with concrete. It is much better if an earth surface remains in the room, capable of keeping heat.

    Champignons can be grown outdoors, as many experienced mushrooms make it. True, in this case the risk of failure increases. Unforeseen frosts can affect the number of champignons and even the beginning of their growth.

    Selection and preparation of the room

    Place the fungnitsa better along the fence, behind the trees. Recommended parameters:

    • bottom of the trench - from 35 to 45 cm;
    • Width - from 1 to 1.5 meters;
    • Total area - 1.5-2 meters.
    • around the perimeter - a small trench, the depth of which hesitates from 20 to 30 cm.

    Containing rules

    The cultivation of champignons at home for newbies implies the rules that need to be followed. Among them:

    • good ventilation;
    • air humidification;
    • Lack of drafts in a closed space;
    • ventilating hole that does not transmit cold air and closed from the penetration of midges, mosquitoes and other pests;
    • heating during the cold season;
    • The lamps are necessary for the convenience of the mushroom, to the germination they do not belong. Mushrooms do not depend on photosynthesis, they are capable of fruit even in a pitch darkness.

    Containing rules

    How to disinfect the room?

    Champignons do not get along with other mushrooms on one territory. Therefore, before starting growing at home, it should be treated from scratch. Before cultivation, it is necessary to carry out a thorough disinfection of all surfaces with disinfecting solution. Formalin is treated with the surface from the floor to the ceiling, the remaining surfaces pass with the copper sulfate solution. With the help of sulfur make a sulfur checker, and chlorine lime passes the entire territory with a pulleomizer or garden sprayer.

    One or two days after disinfection, the room is ventilated and begin to engage in the process of growing.

    How to disinfect the room

    Separation of space on zone

    Zoning the selected room is divided into two equal parts. One half is intended for the landing of mycelium and the beginning of its germination. The second part is assigned to growing and harvesting. It does not matter whether the room will be divided horizontally or vertically. The most important thing is that the beginning of the fungi can be comfortable to care for the fungty, and then collect her gifts.

    Mycelium: purchased or actually grown?

    The simplest method will be the purchase of the finished substrate infected with the spores of the oyster. Many professional mushrooms and plants growing champignons from scratch engaged in selling ready-made grain mycelium. It is not so expensive, compared with other breeds and time, which must be spent on the sowing and additional processing.

    If the novice mushroom has decided to buy mycelium for further germination at home, it is worth carefully treating his appearance. Its color should be yellow-orange shade, and grains should not include green and black colors. The smell should not be negative, you can even say scare away.

    Important! If you want to start professionally growing champignons, you should not buy a large batch of mycelium immediately. It is worth carefully familiar with the supplier, weigh positive and negative feedback. After the decision is made, it is worth getting the minimum amount of mycelium on the sample. This approach will help to avoid excess time and money.

    If it is decided to grow mycelium itself, it is worth familiar with the step-by-step scheme that can facilitate the process.

    Mycelium: Purchased or Actually Grown Photo 1

    Mycelium: Purchased or Actually Grown Photo 2

    Instructions for the creation of grain mycelium champignons:

    1) in any comfortable capacity, pour 15 kg of grains and fill 20 liters of water; 2) Pointed substrate put on the slab on a slow fire; 3) Bring to a boil and leave tomorrow for 40-50 minutes; 4) Watch that the grains do not boil; 5) Drain the water and give grain to dry through several hours; 6) Fill in banks with finished material; 7) Take plastic covers, do holes in them and put on banks; 8) Close the holes on the wool cover and put in the autoclave for 25-40 minutes; 9) With the help of holes, place the fungne to the jar; 10) Place banks into a thermostat with a temperature of 22-25 degrees; 11) Wait until mycelium sprout and flood the substrate.

    Classic Mitcelium Sumpinon Recipe

    Growing champignons at home for beginners includes 6 main ingredients:

    1) horse or bird manure; 2) dry gypsum; 3) fertilizer (can be counted with the seller-consultant when buying); 4) chalk; 5) dry straw; 6) Alebaster flour.

    At 10 kg of manure it is necessary to take 400 g of fertilizer, 20 kg of straw, 1.5 kg of dry gypsum and 1 kg of chalk.

    Substrate in beds, placement rules

    To begin growing at home, at the cottage, basement or any closed room, all step-by-step regulations listed below should be performed.

    1) First, it is necessary to make a rack with bottom and sides, exceeding the depth of boxes by 20-50 cm. 2) boxes (one or more) must be filled with substrate and place on the shelves. 3) If the floor is not covered with concrete in the room, and the land is looked in, the growing beds can be placed right on Earth.

    Growing champignons, varieties

    Like any other mushrooms, champignons can be grown as at home, summer cottage, basement, garage and even greenhouse. Some gardeners even manage to engage in the mushroom business outdoors, risking to stay without fertile harvest. About each of the popular methods can be found below.

    From scratch in the basement in bags

    Many mushrooms, having even extensive experience in the germination of champignons, use a variant of growing mushrooms in the basement. The closed room in most cases is heated and does not need additional revision. It remains only to put a moisturizer and build a rack.

    It is best to grow champignons in polyethylene bags. This method is most practical to move from one place to another.

    A feature of this method and its disadvantage is that in the process of the appearance of mushrooms, bags are transferred to a well-ventilated place. The change of place is extended for several weeks until the mushrooms are collected. After, the bag with the substrate is returned to the previous place to re-start the serial process from scratch.

    from scratch in the basement in bags

    On Groke

    To start growing on the beds, it is worth preparing the soil at the autumn time. To do this, collect the upper part of the Earth from 15 to 35 cm, pour the bare area with a small layer of clay, bespoke with sawdust or beveled herb.

    At the end of spring, the soil should be treated, make small wells and infect mycelium. If mycelium grain is scattered and tamped to save more moisture.

    The start of fruiting begins when a temperature is reached 23-27 degrees. Mushrooms have time to grow in 10-14 days.

    On Groke

    On the balcony

    Growing on the balcony is no different from the basement. The only difference is the additional insulation of the room. It should be glazed the balcony, insulation brick walls with glass gambles or URSA material.

    In addition, ventilation and convenient rack must be present.

    Among other methods of growing: block and container methods. They allow you to grow champignons in a greenhouse and even a barn.

    List of disease and pests:

    • mummy;
    • Mushroom tick;
    • rot;
    • Mushroom midge;
    • Mold (any kind).
    1. When mummy appears, the fungne is removed along with the substrate.
    2. At the first signs of the fungal mushroom mushrooms spray with a solution of metaphos.
    3. You can always get rid of mushroom midges using chlorofos.
    4. Formalin will help from rotting and mold.

    on the balcony

    Profitability of business

    Even the galance has both pros and cons. Growing mushrooms as a business, is beneficial only if there is demand on the market. Therefore, before opening your small mushroom farm, it is worth finding out how many competitors are in the city. If there are many of them, they have a lot of experience and a good customer base, it is worth thinking that you can invite potential buyers to make their job interest more than stocks and a well-established price list of competitors.

    In addition to assessing competitors, it is worth considering potential costs and losses in the first months. The list of expenses includes:

    • Rent or build a suitable room;
    • Purchase mycelium, equipment and other things;
    • disinfecting facilities for the processing of the room;
    • Building ventilation;
    • Purchase of a humidifier of air and heater;
    • Washed to the sanitary expertise of finished products.

    Approximate consumption - 100 thousand rubles. When selling all the yield, revenue will be 200 thousand rubles, that is, net income = 100 thousand. However, it can be less if demand is not, and an employee with a prescribed salary hired to work.

    In the process of mushrooms, other penalties may appear. The cultivation of champignons for beginners at home from zero for sale is quite a cost, takes away a lot of time and strength. Therefore, the hobby is one thing, and the business is completely different. And if you want to try, starting standing with germination for yourself.

    Video: Growing champignons for beginners at home

    Many people go to the forest every summer to collect mushrooms for personal use. It was necessary to spend a lot of time to spend, besides, you can stumble on empty clearing and disappointed. Therefore, some mushrooms go to such an occupation as the cultivation of champignons at home for beginners. Indeed, mushrooms can be raised at home or in the garden.

    So you can assemble such a fungal harvest that you need. At the same time ride and spend a lot of time and gasoline does not have to. And the cultivation of champignons as a business is an excellent idea of ​​making money (on average, these mushrooms cost 50 rubles per kilogram, but in some regions the price can differ significantly). Regardless of the purpose you put in front of yourself, you need to know how to grow champignons at home. And this will be discussed in this article.

    Where the champignons grow in nature

    The cultivation of mushrooms of champignons should be started with the very basics. Champignon (lat. Agaricus) - the genus of plate mushrooms of the champignon family (agricultural). These mushrooms can grow almost on any territory where there is a rich organic humor. It may be a forest, a glade, anthills, dead trees, they can be found even among high grass. It is equally important to know what champignons look like that you can find them in the forest.

    The fruit bodies of champignons can be of different sizes: from 3 to 20 centimeters. The hat is dense, rounded, but with age it becomes more flat. The color of the mushroom is usually white or drowned, sometimes you can find brown champignons. In the air, the flesh of the mushroom acquires a yellowish, less frequently, shade. The smell of mushroom champignons (similar to anise), so if it is missing, it is worth it (suddenly a false champignon was collected). A characteristic element of the fungus is a ring that leaves a private bedspread on the leg.

    Conditions for growing champignons at home

    Are you interested in how to grow champignons on the cottage step by step and from scratch? Then you need to know the main conditions for breeding mushrooms. If you correctly create the following conditions and install equipment for growing mushrooms, you can collect champignons all year round. Some people leave this case as a hobby, and some are building a business plan for the cultivation of champignons and put production on the flow. But nevertheless, you must first create the necessary conditions for the growth of champignon in the apartment, basement, garden plot and other places. So, it is necessary:

    • choose the right place;
    • decamion;
    • create the necessary microclimate;
    • Correctly prepare and then use the substrate;
    • lay compost according to the rules;
    • equipment for growing champignons;
    • choose or grow mycelium yourself;
    • Correctly care for the growth and development of mushrooms.

    Conditions for growing champignons at home

    Separately, I would like to highlight the importance of oxygen and air updates for mushrooms indoors. This is especially true of the basement and greenhouses. The fact is that in the process of grinding champignons, like any other mushrooms, consume oxygen and isolated carbon dioxide. If there is no permanent air update (i.e., high-quality ventilation), then the mushrooms will stop growing, and then they will invere. Observing all the above conditions, you can enjoy your first harvest after a few months. After all, champignons grow rapidly, and they are not so whims like other mushrooms. Therefore, let's then consider how to grow champignons in the basement, as these rooms use most frequently. But first things first.

    How to grow champignons in the basement

    The basement is the perfect place to grow champignons, if it is correct to equip and know how to grow champignons in the basement. Since the mushrooms require an increased humidity, the room must first be defraged (otherwise the mold or other pathogenic microflora will quickly appear and destroy the mushrooms). There are several ways to disinfect the basement or any other room:

    • whitewashes (2-3 kg) with the addition of copper sipop (100 g) and water (10 l);
    • irrigation of the walls of chlorine lime (350 g), divorced in water (10 l);
    • irrigation of walls 4% formalin;
    • Use of sulfur checkers;
    • Chlorofos - applies only if other methods do not work (too poisonous).

    How to grow champignons in the basementHow to grow champignons in the basement

    You can use any method of disinfection, but most often used whitewash all surfaces. In any case, after disinfection, the room needs to be thoroughly ventilated. Since all the above substances relate to poisonous and can be dangerous to human respiratory system. Do not forget to make pre-high-quality ventilation (the air must be fresh, but there should be no drafts). Pipes It is advisable to close the grid with small cells to exclude insects to the mushroom farm.

    To completely know how to grow champignons in the basement, you need to know a few more rules. So, the thermometer and the hygrometer should be installed to monitor the humidity and temperature. If the humidity decreases, then the soil must be irrigated with water. But if the summer is hot and the temperature is high, then the fans should be turned on. For growing mushrooms in winter, the heating system will necessarily need. It is desirable that the floor is earthen, and not concrete.

    If you plan to make this business globally and put the cultivation of champignons to the stream, the room should be divided into 2 parts. In one champignons will be emerged (so to speak incubation, thanks to the fungne), in the second boxes with the champignons themselves will be located. The temperature of the room with mushrooms and "germs" of mushrooms should be located in the region of 23-25 ​​degrees Celsius. But already more "matured" should be located in a room with a temperature of 16-18 degrees Celsius.

    Compost for growing champignons

    Compost for growing champignons

    The soil with a compost for champignons is an important part so that mushrooms will quickly grow on a large scale and were high quality. Usually, when buying mycelium on the package, it is already written what compost requires for this type of champignons. And if you compare several types of mycelium, it becomes clear that for most, the same or very similar soil is required. Here are some major components to create an compost for growing champignons with their own hands:

    • Use horse manure, while horses were supposed to eat with hay (and not green grass);
    • Horse manure humidity should be approximately 45% (+ -5% error), and in volume will need at least 100 kg;
    • Dry wheat (or rye) straw - it needs 100 kg;
    • Alebaster or different gypsum - 6 kg.

    This is the entire composition of the compost that is suitable for almost all kinds of mycelium of champignons. And if you do not like the plaster, it can be replaced by 2-3 kg of urea or the same number of nitrate. And one experienced mushroom picker in answering the question of how champignons grown on an industrial scale, said that it uses 100 kg of straw and horse manure, 3 kg of urea, 5 kg of chalk, 2 kg of superphosphate and 8 kg of gypsum. Such a ratio of compost components creates the perfect combination of all necessary substances for rapid growth of high-quality champignons.

    Compost for growing champignons

    But it is important not to just mix the desired amount of ingredients, but also to do it right. There is a special compost instruction for the cultivation of champignons:

    1. In a wide container, put all the straw and pour it with hot water on one day.
    2. To lay a plastic film to lay the layers on which we need to lay layers (it is necessary that insects and other animals do not start inside the compost).
    3. In 5-6 layers, lay layers of straw and horse manure, each layer must be slightly moistened with warm water (but it is not necessary to abundantly).
    4. After 3 days, mix the straw with the horse manure, pass the inside of the fertilizer: superphosphate and urea.
    5. The resulting mass will smell ammonia - this is normal, you need to wait another day.
    6. Mix the stravenous-dung mass again by adding the remaining components of the compost.
    7. Wait another 1 day, after which the future compost move again.
    8. The future soil for mycelium will be prepared for 20 days, in the process of which it should be mixed 3-4 times (during this time, precipitation and direct sun rays should not fall on the workpiece, that is, it will take a good canopy).
    9. Compost readiness signal will be the absence of ammonia odor.

    I would like to note that it is impossible to moisturize the compost too much. First, high humidity slows down the growth of champignons. Secondly, a large amount of water is washed out of salts and nutrients, which is why mushrooms will be poor and may die at all. After the preparation of the compost, you can go to the landing of mycelium.

    After the preparation of the compost, you can move to the landing of mycelium

    Mycelium Shampignon - landing

    Many are often interested in how to make Mycelium Champignon at home. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to fulfill this task, and a lot of time is required. But the answer to the question of how to grow mycelium champignons at home is much easier. Since in this case it is used by purchased and ready to plant a mushroom. Ripe compost must be shifted into drawers or another place where the mushrooms will continue to grow. Then you need to plant already purchased mycelium champignons:

    1. On 1 square meter of compost, 500 g of mycelium or 400 g of mushroom spores are used.
    2. At a distance of 20 centimeters from each other to make holes, the depth of which will be 4-6 centimeters, to plant mycelium in them (if you use disputes, they just need to scatter on the surface).
    3. Create high humidity in the basement (about 80-90%), periodically the substrate must irrigate water from the spray and cover with a damp cloth, the temperature in the basement should be about 24 degrees Celsius.
    4. A few days later the mushroom cobweb will appear, and for 10-12 days the compost should be sprinkled with land (read the instructions on the package).
    5. For 15-17 days, the boxes with mycelium need to drag into a cooler room (16-20 degrees Celsius) or artificially reduce the temperature in this place to the necessary numbers.

    The crop from one mushroom can be collected 5-8 times, but the most large amount of mushrooms appears in the first three waves (the first crop appears in 2-3 months, some varieties begin to be fronit only closer to 4 months of growth). After each harvest collection, it is necessary to sprinkle with the landfill, which was used in the 4 step. By the way, if there is no desire to buy this mixture in the store, you can do it with your own hands. It is only necessary to mix 1 share of limestone, 4 shares of pure soil, 5 shares of peat.

    Mycelium Shampignon - landing

    How to grow champignons at the cottage in the open soil

    In fact, to grow champignons in the garden plot or in the garden, you need to stick to the same rules as described above. If there is no possibility to create a suitable compost, then the soil for mushrooms can be brought from the forest where champignons grow. Sold the mycelium mushrooms is better in the area with shadow so that there is no direct ray. In hot and sunny days you need to cover the mushrooms with a film, as well as periodically water. Humidity and temperature should be exactly the same as in the basement. But if mushrooms can be grown in the basement year-round, then in the open ground it is better to carry mycelium in summer or autumn, preferably in the period when a small amount of precipitation.

    When collecting harvest champignons

    Now you know how to grow champignons at home. It remains only to consider, at what time to collect a mushroom harvest. Experienced mushrooms recommend collecting champignons at the moment when the mushroom hat is tightened from the bottom of the film, and the brown plates are not yet visible. At the same time, cut the champignons with a knife is not recommended. The fact is that the pathogenic microflora can fall into the fungal, and mycelium will die (well, if it is 6-8 wave, and if it is only the first harvest wave? It will be offensive). Therefore, the mushrooms are better absorbed, trying not to damage the fungne. Do not forget immediately after the collection to sprinkle the substrate for landstore so that the next wave is no less.

    The most damned varieties of champignons

    In order to profitably grow champignons for sale, you need to choose the most damned varieties. For cellar and summer cottages are ideal, SILVAN130 (rapid growth, high yield), Somiene512 and Somiene 608 (mycelium gives a crop for a long time - about 10-15 waves - but careful care is required), Hauser A15 (high yield, not whimsical, wide hat). And if you plan to grow at home or in the basement of champignons all year round, then options such as Horst V1 or V3 can be considered. But it is important to note that the above varieties are one of the nothesive mushrooms. No wonder they are the best. But if you make a business from this business, then the spending will quickly pay off.

    The most damned varieties of champignons

    Summary

    So, the cultivation of champignons is a profitable business that can be engaged in the soul. Do not forget the basic rules: special soil is required, special conditions, temperature and humidity, and with obtaining the first harvest, the rapidness of watering should be reduced to eliminate the reinforcement of the roots. If you correctly create conditions, then mushrooms can be grown year-round. Usually mycelium gives 6-8 waves of harvest, but some types of champignons can give up to 15 waves. If you have any questions left, ask them in the comments under the article. We will definitely reply in the near future. Good luck in your endeavors!

    In the cultivation of champignons at home - an easy task, if you know which room for this is necessary, as well as which use components to ensure stable and high-quality fruiting. Today, several popular methods of growing mushrooms are used on the territory of their home.

    Champignon

    Selection and preparation of the room

    For growing mushrooms, no special knowledge and skills are required. The most optimal place for such a business is a basement or cellar of a private house. Mushrooms are not heat-loving, and do not need constant lighting. If the basement is missing, it is permissible to carry out the procedure in the greenhouse in the country or the barn.

    Indoors must be concrete walls, cemented floors and good ventilation. Prevent pest attacks will help grid material that closes the holes for ventilation. Wall and ceiling must be made.

    What is mycelium need?

    Mycelium is also called the mushroom. It is a vegetative body of mushrooms - a system of the finest branching threads or gif.

    Mycelium performs important functions, because without it the process of growing mushrooms will not take place:

    • participates in the spioning and responsible for the preservation of the resulting dispute;
    • Helps organisms to attach to nutritional substrates;
    • well adapts to the environment;
    • With the help of enzymes processes cellulose, getting it from it available for the growth and development of a substance.

    Mycelium is an important body responsible for the vegetative reproduction of organisms.

    Buying a finished product

    For the cultivation of champignons at home is recommended to use Grain Mycelium Since it is not only convenient to sow, but it does not need additional processing. When buying mycelium pay attention to its appearance: the grains should be yellow with a slight orange tint.

    The purchase of mycelium is not recommended with the presence of dark spots - this is evidence that the mold is present. The quality of the planting material is also determined by the smell: there must be a clear fragrance of fresh mushrooms. If an ammonium smell is felt, the product was incorrectly stored and spoiled.

    Be sure to pay attention to the manufacturer's company. It is advisable to choose mycelium from a well-known and large supplier. You should not immediately buy a lot of mycelium, first it is better to take a sample. If there is no problems with germination, the formation of fungnyes will be good, then buy a large game.

    Independent cultivation of mycelium

    Before planting mushrooms, many gardeners and gardeners grow mycelium independently, referring to the fact that it will be possible to get a quality product. Mycelium, divorced house, is compost and grain.

    Cooking Grain Mycelium happens according to such a scheme:

    1. Fill 10 kg of grains into the container, pour 15 liters of water.
    2. Put on a slow fire, bring to a boil and tomorrow for half an hour. Grains should not be powered, but must be soft.
    3. Drain the water, dry the grain, and then fall asleep the finished material in liter banks. In the covers and grains to do the holes.
    4. Close the holes on the covers with cotton swabs. Place banks in an autoclave with a pressure of 1.5 atm. 30 mnut.
    5. In the cooled grain, more precisely in its holes, put the fungouncing.
    6. Banks put into a thermostat with a temperature of 24 degrees, not to get to the moment until the mycelium fully takes the entire nutrient medium.

    For getting compost mycelium Procedures are done:

    1. Take 3-liter banks and 2/3 to fill them with a substrate champignon. Good compact.
    2. Turn the jars with covers by doing 3-centimeter holes in them, closing them with cotton swabs.
    3. Heat compost up to 24 degrees, put a fungouncing in it.
    4. Prevent the infection of mycelium will help dense blocking of holes in the lids.

    Mycelium

    Substrate preparation (compost): Cooking with your own hands

    Mushrooms require the conditions close to natural, so specially prepared compost is needed, the composition of which should be loose and nutritious.

    For the cultivation of the maximum crop prepare a substrate, following the instructions. Since strains or varieties of mushrooms are different, the cooking technology and the composition of the substrate can vary a little. But there are general principles for the preparation of compost for growing mushrooms.

    For the preparation of compost, the ingredients are connected in such proportions:

    First option Second option
    • horse manure with a high content of straw (humidity 40-45%) - 850 kg;
    • Gypsum - 18 kg;
    • urea - 3 kg;
    • Ammonium nitrate - 8 kg;
    • Superphosphate - 13 kg.
    • horse manure - 2 thousand kg;
    • chalk - 7.5 kg;
    • straw - 50 kg;
    • Superphosphate - 5 kg;
    • urea - 5 kg;
    • Ammonium sulfate - 8 kg.

    It is permissible to replace the horse manure to bird or cow leaves, but in this case the yield rate will be lower.

    Next follow such a scheme:

    1. The straw is soaked for 24 hours in warm water in a convenient capacity. After placing into the stack, stirring with the layers of manure (they should turn out 6-8). Each layer is moisturized with warm water.
    2. After 3-4 days, mix the compost and add urea and superphosphate.
    3. After 3-4 days, mix the compost again, gradually bringing the remaining minerals. In the last stirring, add plaster.

    On average, the compost preparation takes 24-28 days. The fact that the substrate is ready to testify the disappearance of the smell of ammonia and the acquisition of a light brown shade of manure. The finished substrate is moved to the basement and lay out in the container where the cultivation of champignons is planned.

    Experienced mushrooms are recommended to use for the first landing less arrogant and more resistant to disturbance conditions for growing compost. The yield with compost mycelium is not so rich, but it is much easier to get the first experience. Before planting the mushrooms, the substrate carefully examines the substrate: it should be a bit spring, not solid and indispensable.

    Step-by-step instructions for beginners

    There are several major step-by-step rules that need to know when planting and growing mushrooms at home. With proper execution, it will be possible to regularly receive large crops of mushrooms.

    Landing

    After cooking the substrate and styling in drawers or bags, it is planted with a mycelium, which is plugged by 5 cm. Adheres the distances of 20 cm between the deepening. It is recommended to perform disembarking in a checker order. After landing sprinkled with a soil fungouncing.

    If the mushroom disputes fall on, they are shedding on the surface of the soil. After sowing, it is not necessary to sprinkle them with soil and moisturize. The soil is covered with cloth and regularly moisturize. Mushroom grows for five days. At this time, the room holds moisture at 80-95% and temperatures of 22-27 degrees. After 12 days, the surface is covered with 1 part of limestone, 4 parts of the soil and 5 parts of the peat. The thickness of the layer should be at least 3 cm. After that, another 5 days should pass, the ground is periodically moistened. After another 5 days, the temperature is reduced to 13-16 degrees.

    Landing champignons

    Growing and care

    Although there is no need for constant mushroom care, it is necessary to pre-prepare the premises and create special conditions in it:

    • Equipment for growing. Depends on the method of growing champignons. The best way is to grow in bags. For this, special supports with hangers are useful to hang bags with substrate. It is recommended to use plastic equipment - it is not deformed, it is not amenable to corrosion, it is much cheaper.
    • Optimal temperature. Champignons are not required high temperatures, therefore do not create greenhouse conditions. We only have to warm the room, carry out thermal insulation, which contributes to the deduction of moisture. Also, the heating devices are installed - the temperature should not fall below 13 degrees. Increased temperature is set only at the initial stage. For additional heating, the use of infrared lamps is allowed.
    • Humidity level. Champignons love moisture, because the air in the room should be constantly moistened. It is simple: use sprayers or special - electronic humidifiers. Humidity level is not lower than 70-90%.
    • Ventilation and lighting. Be sure to regularly ventilate the room. It is better to use fresh air exhaust. But if you do not plan to grow in large volumes, it is permissible to manually ventilate the room. Several gardens lamps are installed for lighting.

    It is equally important to take care of the fertilizer. As the grill is growing, the mushroom gradually appears on the surface, and after a couple of weeks it will be completely over the soil. Avoid the dryness and destruction of another fruitful mushrooms, a fertile substrate, fastened on top, will help. A fertilizer consisting of 9 parts of the peat and 1 part of the chalk is also included in the soil. Per quarter. M evenly scatter 40-50 g of the mixture.

    Harvest Rules

    From the moment of sowing to the collection of the first harvest takes 3-4 months. Collect young medium-sized mushrooms, those who have a whole membrane that connects the leg and a hat. As a sowing material, it is recommended to collect mushrooms with highly discontinued caps - they lose their useful properties.

    It is forbidden to collect mushrooms with a darkened light brown hat - they can cause intoxication of the body and lead to strong poisoning.

    Champignons are not cut, like forest mushrooms, and unscrew. The rest after collecting the well sprinkled with a compost. At this place will grow a mushroom again. The active fruction of champignons lasts 8-14 weeks. During this time, the harvest is collected up to 7 times. Further, the yield decreases, therefore remove the mycelium, and the substrate utilize.

    After stopping fruiting, the fungi is removed and used as a feeding for the next generation. The remaining substrate is not reused, because it loses its fertile properties. From 1 square m assemble up to 60 kg of mushrooms.

    Types of growing champignons

    Grow champignons in several ways: indoors or outdoors. Each method has its own specific requirements, the observance of which will allow to receive a large and high-quality harvest.

    In the basement (in bags)

    Experienced mushrooms recommend using large polyethylene bags for growing mushrooms. This method originally attracted that it is possible to move bags to any place.

    How the cultivation procedure is carried out:

    1. A nutritious substrate is prepared, which is 70% consisting of horse manure and 25% compost mixture.
    2. Defend the substrate with heating to 25 degrees.
    3. The mixture is laying into bags with a thickness of 25-30 cm and plant mycelium.
    4. Leave on the rack on three days, which in the bag make 5-6 slots and leave in the dark at a temperature of 18-20 degrees.
    5. After 2-3 weeks, mushrooms will begin to appear in the slots. Bags are transferred to a well-ventilated and constantly illuminated room.
    6. The commodity weight of the mushrooms is gaining in about 3-4 weeks.
    7. After harvesting, the bags are transferred back, after which the mushroom begins to grow again.

    When fruiting is required to monitor the level of humidity - it should be about 70-95%. Also follow the substrate temperature - 20-27 degrees.

    Champignons in bags

    On Groke

    For planting mushrooms, the plot is prepared from autumn: remove the upper layer of the soil - about 30 cm. The width of the bed should not be less than 1 meter. A distance of 55 cm are held between the rows. A layer of claympsite serving as a drainage layer is poured. Its thickness must be 9 cm. On top of it throws the weary grass, watered with a cowhide solution, puffed with soil.

    Before laying a substrate on the garden, the soil is disinfected using a carbation solution. The substrate is done by the holes in a depth of at least 5 cm. Mushrooms deepen into the well to a few centimeters, sprinkled with a substrate. When using grain mycelium, it is scattered over the surface of the soil and tamper. On the border of the beds are done with taps for the flow of extra moisture.

    At the soil temperature of 25 degrees, the growing of the mushrooms occurs within 14 days. At a temperature of 30 degrees, the death of mushrooms is possible. For convenience, it is planted in a chess order at a distance of 25 cm between the wells. After landing, the beds are mulched by straw, which contributes to the evaporation of moisture. After rooting the mushrooms, the straw is removed and covered with a coating layer using peat and chalk in a 9: 1 ratio.

    On the balcony (houses on the shelves)

    Growing on the balcony is one of the most convenient ways suitable for those who live in the apartment. No special physical and cash costs are required. Such a procedure is quite simple:

    1. Glaping and insulate the balcony.
    2. Build a small closet with racks, as well as boxes with a height of 20 cm.
    3. In the closet, install a ventilation pipe with a valve, to put the air humidifier at the bottom to maintain the required level of humidity.
    4. For the preparation of the substrate is mixed with a straw 10 kg, a bird litter 15 kg, alabaster of 8 kg. Increase yields will allow the addition of superphosphate and urea - 200 g. Everyone is mixed in warm water. Boxes insulate moss.
    5. The substrate matures 3 weeks. After that, mycelium makes, desirable grain. It is evenly scattered on the surface of the substrate and pour from above the same layer 4-5 cm thick. Per square meter. M Square of the substrate contributes 350 g of mycelium.
    6. 10 days after germination, mycelium is covered with a mixture of chalk and peat in a ratio of 1:10. The thickness of the layer should not exceed 4-5 cm.
    7. After 5 days after the coating of the covering soil, the air temperature is lowered to 17 degrees. Soil superficially moisturized with water.

    Fruiting occurs after 50-60 days, and harvesting continues year-round.

    Container fashion

    A simple way to grow mushrooms and in the apartment and in the house. Capacities with substrate is permissible to place in any convenient location. How to conduct a procedure:

    1. Prepare a container, necessarily taking not only the container, but also a lid with a pallet.
    2. Disinfect the container and load the substrate.
    3. Sow mycelium, blocking 4-5 cm.
    4. Moisturize the soil with a mushroom.

    Special attention is paid to watering. The temperature is a secondary factor, but it is necessary to ensure that the indicator does not exceed 30 degrees. This method is good in that there will be enough 3-4 containers for their own consumption, and the minimum investments will be needed.

    Watch the video about the cultivation of champignons in the container at home:

    Block method

    Many mushrooms today prefer to buy ready-made blocks for growing mushrooms from a pressed substrate. Large production is pressed into the briquettes of nulls, peat, wood sawdust and husks of seeds. For the production of mushrooms, it is not necessary to choose the premises with large areas. Due to the full preparation of blocks, they will not have to plant mycelium champignons, because it is already in them. One block weighs from 2.5 to 20 kg.

    The blocks are placed horizontally on the shelves and pallets, and holes are done on their surface. Avoid drying the block will allow burlap, a film or paper that is covered. After coating the block, mycelium is covered with coating ground, ventilation stops. Blocks are preferably moisturized by spraying. The first crop of mushrooms is collected in 60-75 days.

    What diseases and pests to wait for harm?

    Fighting with pests and diseases will help the main disinfection of the room with flue checkers, spraying and lime. But occasionally there are situations when mushrooms are subjected to various diseases and pests. The most common belongs to the following:

    Name The reasons Methods of struggle
    Mushroom tick Small yellow parasite eating the legs of mushrooms. Eliminate the problem by spraying mushrooms and composite with a solution of metaphos 0.1%.
    Mummy The disease arising from the lack of light. Mushroom caps are becoming a dark gray shade, and the pulp of the drone. Remove contaminated fungnyen along with the substrate.
    Mushroom midge The larvae of flies falling into compost together with manure. Over time, the fungita is amazed that it is fraught with the cessation of fruiting and death Conduct the processing of compost chlorofosomes 0.5%.
    Ring of mushrooms The development of the disease passes with the direct penetration of moisture in the already formed mushroom. This leads to an instant infection of other fungi. Spoiled mushrooms are removed, those that remained are treated with a solution of formalin with a concentration of 0.2%.
    Mold On the surface of the fungi, wet brown spots are formed, increasing in size. Purchase mushrooms are removed, the substrate sprinkles with superphosphate and cooking salt.

    Profitability of home business

    To determine the profitability of business for the cultivation of champignons at home, it is required to clearly determine what will be needed for full development:

    • Rental of premises or construction new;
    • Acquisition of mycelium and the necessary equipment (racks, containers, etc.);
    • Buying facilities for the processing of the room;
    • Purchase of equipment for ventilation and air purification;
    • Conducting a sanitary examination of finished products.

    Calculate costs easy. The purchase of 5 tons of compost will cost 5 thousand rubles., Mycelium - 2.5 thousand rubles. Return the room is about 25.5 thousand rubles. Mandatory waste for employees - for wages for two people can take 30 thousand rubles. Total, the cost part will be about 63 thousand rubles.

    Calculate profits as simple. Of the 5 tons of compost get up to 1 tons of finished products. The average cost of fungi is 200 rubles. With the implementation of 1 ta, it will be possible to get 200 thousand rubles. Net profit will be 137 thousand rubles.

    But such calculations do not include attachments on equipment, room and expenses that may occur in the process of cultivation. Therefore, the payback and receipt of the first profits of the mushroom can receive no earlier than a year, observing all the requirements.

    The following video will tell about the nuances of growing champignons for business purposes:

    In the cultivation of champignons on the territory of his house or apartment is quite simple, if you know all the subtleties. Compliance with all requirements and conditions will help get a qualitative harvest in large volumes. The use of some methods allows you to receive a harvest not only for personal consumption, but also for implementation.

    Publication author

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    Julia Lubenets

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    What you need to know the novice mushroom

    In addition to time and cash investments, the beginning of the mushroom should have an appropriate room. It should be cool, darkened and without drafts. An excellent option will be the cellar, basement, major garage, greenhouse or storage room. With the onset of heat, when the air temperature holds about 20 ° C, champignons can be grown on their own household plot. In the room, the temperature should be maintained within + 12 ... + 20 ° C, with the necessary humidity - 65-85%. The temperature of the soil should be kept at + 15 ... + 17 ° C.

    The possibility of growing champignons of the house depends on such factors:

    • premises;
    • the quality of the substrate;
    • Mycelium (Mushrooms);
    • Temperature mode and humidity.

    In the room you need ventilation, since for the development of mushrooms, ammonia pairs and carbon dioxide are distinguished. The arrangement of mycelium does not affect this, but during the formation of the mushrooms, such an atmosphere slows down the growth of champignons and harms human health.

    Mushrooms do not need light. They can grow in complete darkness. But for care works, adjustable lighting is necessary. The temperature is measured by a conventional thermometer and adjust with heating devices (in regions with strong frosts), and watering perform irrigation nozzles or use manual cans with small sieve.

    The crop depends on the quality of mycelium (mushrooms), which is evenly distributed over the entire surface of the nutrient substrate. It is a vegetative body of the mushroom, consists of fine binding threads with a characteristic mushroom smell. This is an important body that is responsible for nutritional function and reproduction.

    The right choice of high quality mushrooms is 50% success.

    How to buy high-quality mycelium

    Newbie in the breeding of mushrooms should be aware of how the quality product looks like. A good mycelium has a small fluffy white flare and clear threads. On the sight he loose and gives dampness.

    A person without experience is difficult to grow a fungentic on his own. At all stages of mycelium requires sterility and special equipment. The quality product is grown in laboratory in three ways: by obtaining it from the dispute, release from a piece of fruit and with the help of selection. For growing at home, sowing material is made from mushroom particles, sold in specialized stores and on Internet sites.

    This mycelium meadow champignon is prolific and unpretentious, and its quality is tested by time. It is sold in packages (1-2 kg) or in liter banks. Taste qualities and nutritional value have the same indicators, the difference lies only in the color of the mushroom. It will be a white or brown shade.

    Self-cultivation of mushrooms

    Those who wish to grow mycelium independently to take three free rooms under the home laboratory:

    • The first will be a cooking room in which grain is prepared;
    • The second is an inoculative intended for sewage;
    • The third is incubation. It will grow mushrooms.

    It is necessary to stock laboratory kitchenware: Petri dish, test tubes, transparent jars with hermetic covers and inoculation loop.

    It will take such equipment:

    • cooking plate;
    • refrigerators compartment;
    • autoclave;
    • thermostat;
    • alcohol burner;
    • bactericidal lamp and filter;

    The technology of self-cultivation of mycelium is performed as follows:

    1. In sterile conditions, the particle of the fruit body is placed in a tube with a liquid nutrient medium and seal for two weeks.
    2. Stored at a temperature of + 24 ° C.
    3. The nutrient medium serves as agar (natural thickener and high molecular weight polysaccharide). It is prepared from carrots or oatmeal. It guarantees an antibacterial and anti-influence effect. It has enough polysaccharides - the main nutritional components for growth and development.
    4. Agar is preparing, observing such a proportion: 1 serving of oatmeal for 2 water portions. Boiling 30-60 minutes. Then cooled, filtered and sterilized.

    Within 14 days, mycelium sprouts and forms clean uterine culture. It is placed in Petri bowl and stored at a temperature of +1 or +2 C.

    In sterile banks with boiled cereals (Oats, wheat) transplan the uterine culture and grown in it sterile grain mycelium. The resulting sowing material is placed in the thermostat and are kept at a temperature of + 22 ... + 24 ° C, until the entire substrate touches the fungal. A finished grain product is spreading five more or seven times.

    If the laboratory costs are not frightened and there is a free area, you can grow the fungne yourself. But the purchase of the finished sulfuric material of sterile production will save from additional spending time and finance.

    Preparation of substrate

    One of the important points in the cultivation of champignons is the preparation of compost. Compliance with technology gives half guarantees for a prosperous outcome of production. The substrate includes such ingredients:

    • straw - 10 kg;
    • manure (pork, horse, cow, bird) - 5 kg;
    • Gypsum - 700 g;
    • Ammonia Seliver - 800 g;
    • chalk - 500 g;
    • urea - 500 ml;
    • Superphosphate - 200 g;
    • ammonium sulfate - 800 g;
    • Alebaster - 500 g

    It turns out one bag weighing 20 kg. If you lay it for 20 cm, the bag is enough for 5 square meters. m.

    If chicken may be used, phosphate and chalk are not added. They are replaced by alabaster in the amount of 500 grams.

    The preparation of the compost is better carried out in the open air, since the heat from the ripening of manure and straw reaches +70 ° C. In the room, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and ammonia couples accumulate and create a poisonous atmosphere. It is necessary to highlight a sunny place for drying hay. Preferably equipped with a canopy in case it rains.

    The substrate is prepared by creating several layers:

    1. In the wide capacity you need to soak the straw per day.
    2. Then decompose it into 4 parts.
    3. Divide the manure to the same parts.
    4. Stop layers, alternating manure with straw (first layer).
    5. Each layer is warm water. To withstand a day.
    6. On the third day, mix the layers of the layers. Add fertilizers - superphosphate and urea.
    7. Wait 24 hours. At this stage, the compost makes a strong smell of ammonia.
    8. On the fifth day you need to mix the substrate, pouring the remaining additives (alabaster, chalk or gypsum).
    9. Leave for 3-4 weeks, stirring it in 2-3 days.

    It is necessary to produce the useful elements to be evenly distributed throughout the substrate, and the compost acquired a homogeneous consistency. It is impossible to allow excessive moisture, otherwise the water will purl the necessary ingredients required for the development and growth of mushrooms.

    On the preparation of compost leaves about 27 days. It is considered ready when an ammonia smell disappears, the mixture acquires a light brown color, will not stick to the hands, and the dirty trail remains on the palms. The temperature of the substrate should not exceed +25 ° C.

    If independent preparation is considered time consuming, and do not want to wait for the result for almost a month, the mixture can be ordered in the store.

    Best grade varieties

    Modern selection provides the market with new samples of champignons. Today there are already about 50 varieties. Hybrid varieties differ from wild, greater yield and good adaptation to artificial conditions.

    The nutritional value of all champignons, homemade cultivation is approximately the same. Small differences between varieties are observed in the intensity of fruits, peculiarities and appearance: color, sizes.

    To grow homemade champignons for commercial purposes choose yields and unpretentious grades:

    1. Hauser A15. High-yielding young hybrid, the most demanded among America and Europe farmers. It is characterized by a large hat, a dense pulp, not inclined to the formation of scales. The strain is suitable for growing at different composites.
    2. Somiec 608 and 512. Staffs are popular in Europe. They give a lot of waves of the crop and differ in the stability of fruiting. Medium sized champignons require strict compliance with growing conditions.
    3. Silvan 130. Universal hybrid American selection, which can be grown in domestic nurseries on the ridges, in bags, on pallets or shelves. The variety is distinguished by quick grade and high fertility. Suitable for conservation.

    To study the home culture, novice mushrooms will suit the purchased mycelium of the usual white champignon.

    Methods of growing

    People who want to grow mushrooms should deal with the peculiarities of growing ways. There are five basic methods, each of which has its own characteristics.

    On Groke

    To start growing on the beds, it is worth preparing the soil at the autumn time. To do this, collect the upper part of the Earth from 15 to 35 cm, pour the bare area with a small layer of clay, bespoke with sawdust or beveled herb.

    At the end of spring, the soil should be treated, make small wells and infect mycelium. If mycelium grain is scattered and tamped to save more moisture.

    The start of fruiting begins when a temperature is reached 23-27 degrees. Mushrooms have time to grow in 10-14 days.

    On Groke

    On the balcony

    Growing on the balcony is no different from the basement. The only difference is the additional insulation of the room. It should be glazed the balcony, insulation brick walls with glass gambles or URSA material.

    In addition, ventilation and convenient rack must be present.

    Among other methods of growing: block and container methods. They allow you to grow champignons in a greenhouse and even a barn.

    List of disease and pests:

    • mummy;
    • Mushroom tick;
    • rot;
    • Mushroom midge;
    • Mold (any kind).
    1. When mummy appears, the fungne is removed along with the substrate.
    2. At the first signs of the fungal mushroom mushrooms spray with a solution of metaphos.
    3. You can always get rid of mushroom midges using chlorofos.
    4. Formalin will help from rotting and mold.

    on the balcony

    In container

    This is a universal way, with which the champignons can be grown in the apartment and in a private house. When using such a method, the mushrooms are extended in special plastic containers. The planting process consists of several consecutive stages:

    1. Preparation of container. First you need to prepare a container in which champignons will grow. It must be pre-rinsed and completely dry.
    2. Container filling. A substrate consisting of horse manure, straw and superphosphate is poured into the prepared container.
    3. Singing mycelium. When landing it is necessary to deepen no more than 5-6 centimeters.
    4. Moisturizing soil. After completion of the landing, it is necessary to moisten the soil. To do this, use water heated to room temperature.

    Block method

    To get more harvest, some people decide to plant mushrooms in special blocks containing a compressed substrate. Many manufacturers are pressed in them a seed husk, sawdust from wood, peat and manure. The main advantage of using blocks is compact. A person will not need too much room for growing mushrooms. A sufficiently small room in which blocks would fit.

    Blocks for landing are very compact. They can be put in a horizontal position on pallets or shelves. From above, they are covered with ordinary paper or polyethylene film. This is done to keep moisture inside. When using blocks, the first harvest is assembled after a month and a half after sitting down mycelium.

    How to grow champignons at home in bags?

    Increase the yield of champignons at home will help a polymer bag. It is used instead of adapted racks and boxes. This technique today is recognized and in demand in many countries of the world.

    • Purchase the polymer film and make a bag yourself. It should be placed from 25 to 35 kilograms of compost.
    • In the cellar bags need to be placed in parallel from each other or in a checker order, i.e. There must be space between them.
    • The height of bags and their width can be different. The main thing is that you can work comfortably with them, and there was no close in the basement.

    The film is not expensive - 50 m2 will cost approximately 100 rubles.

    If problems arise and one of the bags will be infected with infection, then it must be thrown out. If you use racks, then to decoke the mushroom, you have to throw out the entire shelf and re-made a substrate.

    In Teplice

    Growing champignons at home in the greenhouse involves the presence of a greenhouse with darkened glasses. It must be made of glass, polycarbonate or thick wire, covered with film. Mushrooms do not tolerate direct sunlight, and the greenhouse needs to darken. The film can be painted paint, splashing the wet ground or cover the camouflage grid.

    In winter, a greenhouse is suitable, which is used for landing vegetables early spring. But after use, it is necessary to disinfect the greenhouse and eliminate dampness. For the construction of a new work, these works are carried out:

    1. The greenhouse is deepened by 50-70 cm so that the internal temperature and humidity are slightly lower.
    2. The height of the walls above the ground is left at 20-80 cm.
    3. The roof is covered with a layer of manure (30 cm). In the frost you can sow on it snow. If in the region of severe winters, you need to spend heating.
    4. For insulation, inventory with valves use felt. The windows make on the roof of the greenhouse (one six meters). They are necessary for air circulation. If the beads are not enough, you need to supply the greenhouse of the injected ventilation.

    If the roof is made of boards, it will have to be changed every two years. The tree quickly rotates under the shelter from the dung soil, so it is not recommended to do it from expensive material.

    Mushrooms are grown on racks, having them in several tiers on both sides of the main passage. The amount of shelves depends on the size of the room. And the higher the roof, the more it turns out the racks.

    The greenhouse is not installed on the sunny side. The ideal place for it is the shadow side of the site.

    Landing

    Landing must be made immediately after cooking or opening compost and mycelium.

    On a flat surface, covered with a polyethylene film, lay a layer of compost - 18-20 cm. It lies 2-5 days to compact, then the grooves in a checker order (2-3 cm depth) and pour mycelium into them. Per quarter. M accounts for 300-400 g of sowing material. The distance between the grooves should be 25 cm.

    The temperature of the dung soil should be within + 17 ... + 22 ° C, air - + 15 ... + 22 ° C.

    The first 12 weeks of mycelium should be unscrewed, as the soil should always be raw. Behind the sowing should be observed to see how the mushrooms are gradually growing on the substrate. Such a process speaks of a prosperous landing and means that everything is done true, according to the rules.

    Features of harvest

    Each person who decided to grow mushrooms with his own hands should familiarize himself with the features of the collection of mushroom harvest. The first ripe mushrooms must be assembled not earlier than 4-5 months after planning in the ground. It is recommended to collect medium sized champignons with a solid membrane. If people collect mushrooms, which will continue to be used for landing, it is better to choose mushrooms with a fully open cap.

    Collecting the harvest, you need to pay special attention to its appearance. Contraindicated to tear mushrooms, in which the surface of the hat is painted in a bright brownish color. Mushrooms with such a hat are prohibited, because they can be poisoned.

    During the collection of champignons you need to be very neat. They cannot be cut off with a knife. Each mushroom should be carefully unscrewed with their hands. The well, which remained after pulling out the mushroom, sprinkle with a compost. Over time, a new champignon should grow in this place.

    The duration of fruiting mushrooms is two and a half months. During this time, the harvest will have to be engaged at least seven times. When fruiting will end, all the available mushrooms need to be removed so that in the future they can be used to feed new planted champignons.

    Storage

    The mushroom has a delicate structure and with improper storage it will quickly deteriorate. It becomes brittle, soft and loses useful properties. Stages of storage preparation:

    1. Crop the lower part of the leg, on which the residues of the compost are preserved.
    2. Then fold into wooden or cardboard boxes of 6 kg. If the weight is more, the product begins to break under his own weight.
    3. If you do not send immediately to the implementation, stored at a temperature of + 1 ... + 3 s. Under such conditions, they retain freshness up to 14 days.

    For production in large volumes, the alternative will be the acquisition of special equipment in which the temperature can be maintained for long-term storage.

    Diseases and pests

    There are several fairly common diseases and pests that are dangerous for champignons. Mushrooms often get sick. Such a disease is most often evolving due to high humidity in the fungny. If you do not get rid of rotten mushrooms in a timely manner, rotting will begin to spread further, because of what the entire harvest can die. Also, planted mushrooms may suffer from mummy. This ailment develops due to the shortage of light. The first sign of the disease is the appearance of dark spots on the surface of the hats. It is impossible to cure the disease, so you have to completely get rid of the mushrooms.

    Among hazardous pests, a mushroom mite can be distinguished. This is a small yellowish parasite that eats mushroom legs. A solution of metaphos will help to get rid of it. In rare cases, the larvae of flies are attacked on mushrooms. They are also powered by legs. If you do not get rid of such larvae on time, the planted mushrooms will die. You can destroy them with the help of chlorofos. This tool due to its composition, acts not only on the larvae, but also on other pests.

    Idea for business - growing mushrooms at home?

    To grow champignons at home, it will take about 60 thousand rubles, provided that the compost will be purchased ready in briquettes. If you do everything yourself, then the maximum cost of expenses is 12 thousand rubles.

    Do not forget that electricity consumption will increase due to ventilation constantly included. Together with this, the numbers in the accounts for utilities.

    And what can be said about revenue? From one square meter you can collect up to 10 kilograms of champignons, from 3, respectively, 30 kg.

    Even if you consider that champignons will produce only 5 waves, we will collect about 150 kilograms of the product as a result. The price of crude mushroom on the market is about 120 rubles per kilogram. If they can consume and sell, then you can put the price of 200 rubles per 1 liter of champignons.

    Even a small crop will be able to bring a stable profit of 30 thousand rubles. If you grow champignons at home all year round, then the income will grow, while the cost of such business is minimal. This allows us to conclude that business on mushrooms has great potential.

    Market latitude

    Champignons are very in demand in various sectors of the consumer market. Properly processed, blanched and packaged mushrooms you can sell both large and small wholesale, as well as retail:

    • in cafes and restaurants;
    • in large-scale trading networks, as well as private shopping shopping stores;
    • And of course, up to 15% of sales can give a small sale directly directly at the site of growing mushrooms (selling neighbors).

    The intensity of demand during the year is heterogeneous: the highest activity buyers demonstrate in winter; The lowest - summer. Mushrooms are fruit by waves, after 2 months each. In just a year they collect up to 6 identical crops, but the demand for mushrooms is different.

    It is in order to not depend on the needs of buyers, it is necessary to have a sufficient stock of refrigeration. In our case, it is strongly recommended to purchase not expensive industrial refrigerators, and ordinary, used household refrigerators, preferably of Soviet production:

    • Firstly , they do not require 380 volts, and are designed for 220;
    • Secondly , refrigeration facilities can be increasing gradually without investing large finances at the same time;
    • third , taking into account user feedback, it is recommended to acquire Soviet refrigerators (like "Biryusa" or "Yuryuzan") - they are most reliable and able to work without breakdowns up to 60 years!

    Spoiler

    • https://dm-st.ru/vyrashchivanie-shampinonov-v-domashnikh-usloviyakh.
    • https://agrognom.ru/mushrooms/kak-vyrastit-shampinony-v-domashnih-usloviyahnih-usloviyah.html.
    • https://yourspells.ru/dom-i-sad/shampinony-v-domashnih-usloviyah.html
    • https://gribysobiraem.info/vyrashchivanie-shampinonov-dlya-novichkov-v-domashnih-usloviyah/
    • https://b-mag.ru/podrobnoe-opisanie-kak-vyrastitit-shampinony-doma/
    • https://ardma.ru/biznes/nachinaya-bizNes/zapusk-osnov/731-vyrashchivaniye-shampinonov-kak-biznes/

    Experienced dacities have learned to get a rich crop of potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers. He came to the ceremony to become a professional in the cultivation of mushrooms. Cultivation of champignons - a new-fashioned passion for avid crop and profitable business for entrepreneurs.

    Cultivation of champignons at home for beginners may seem rather difficult. And indeed it is. The breeding of champignons is a labor-intensive process, which primarily requires patience, knowledge, necessary devices and a suitable room. But when mastering all the subtleties, you can get excellent results.

    Advantages of homemade mushrooms

    Happy people who have their own gardens and gardens in which mushrooms can be grown. Not everyone knows that you can start growing delicious champignons in your own home, providing an easily accessible crop. Even more appears enthusiasts growing mushrooms on their own. This hobby requires patience and labor.

    Cultivating champignons at home, we have one hundred percent confidence that mushrooms are grown without harmful additives and chemistry. We will be sure that mushrooms do not grow on artificial fertilizers, do not contain preservatives that prevent damage in the process of transportation and storage.

    Mushrooms are a source of mineral salts, vitamins A, B, D. They contribute to weight loss, are a low-calorie product. Champignons have a pleasant, soft aroma, are among the few mushrooms that can be eaten even raw. Therefore, they are not only added to soups and sauces, which are subjected to culinary processing, but also used for fresh salads and sandwiches.

    Table. Nutrient content in 100 g of fresh champignons

    Substance Weight
    protein 3.5 g
    Fat. 0.2 g
    Sahara 3.6 g
    water 89.5 g
    a nicotinic acid 5.85 mg
    Pantothenic acid 2.38 mg
    Vitamin B1. 0.15 mg
    Vitamin B2. 1.3 mg
    vitamin C 8.6 mg
    phosphorus 130.0 mg
    calcium 25.0 mg
    potassium 400.0 mg
    iron 1.0 mg
    energy value 45 kcal

    The unique aroma and taste of champignons are only part of their advantages. And in the case of mushrooms from the home farm benefits even more. Especially if acid rains are going, chemical enterprises are located nearby, the usefulness of forest fungi becomes in question. And your home mushrooms - at times it is more useful!

    Select room

    For the cultivation of champignons it is necessary to cool room.

    Usually use the following options:

    • basement;
    • garage;
    • cellar;
    • barn;
    • greenhouse.

    But the room is needed only when the cultivation of mushrooms is carried out yearly. In the spring-summer period, before increasing the temperature on the street above 20 ºС, champignons can grow on the street in the open soil.

    Well champignons grow in the basement, which in the winter is heated, and the temperature remains between 12-16 ° C. In such conditions, with systematic ventilation and control of temperature and humidity, champignons can be grown year-round.

    Important. In a room intended for growing household champignons, the floor should not be poured concrete. The best coating for mushrooms is the earth.

    Mushrooms can be grown on the street - outdoors, but the risk of failure with this method is much higher. When growing on the street, you need to protect them from changing weather conditions, ensuring a shelter, for example, in the trench. The best place for this method is a part of the site shaded and wind-protected. The bottom of the trench should have a depth of 40 cm, a width of 1.3 m, an area of ​​1.7 m. The length of the trench must be adapted to the size of the mushroom. At the edges of the pit make the shaft 20-25 cm high.

    Conditions of detention

    In a room intended for growing household champignons, you need to ventilate, without drafts, preferably under the ceiling. Without the inflow of fresh air into the room, champignons are pulled out in length.

    From the ventilation holes should not come cold air. In order to avoid penetration penetration and for smooth inflow of air masses, the vent hole is worth covering the shallow mesh.

    Independent conditions when choosing and preparing the premises:

    1. high air humidity rates (at least 60%, is better than 90%);
    2. Temperature (18-24 ° C).

    Choosing a place to grow mushrooms, it should be borne in mind that the room should be heated, with the possibility of temperature control, humidity.

    Mushrooms are not photosynthesize, they do not need sunlight. An excellent harvest of champignons can be obtained even when growing in complete darkness. Lamps, as a rule, are installed for the convenience of people.

    Important. In the case for cultivation of champignons, it is necessary to put instruments for measuring temperature and humidity - hygrometers, thermometers.

    Disinfection of the room

    Champignons have its own peculiarities. They grow poorly in places where some other species compete with them. Therefore, before planting champignons in the cultivation room, it is necessary to carry out surface treatment with the purpose of disinfection.

    Beginner mushrooms for disinfection can use:

    • Formalin - spray from floor to ceiling.
    • Lime solution with copper vigor. In 1 bucket of water, 3 kg of lime and 100 g of copper sulfate are divorced. Process all surfaces.
    • Sulfur. They burn a sulfur checker, leave for a few days.
    • Bleaching powder. In 1 bucket of water add 350 g of lime. Spray or paint all sections of the room for growing mushrooms.

    After processing, the room is ventilated.

    Zoning space

    For the cultivation of champignons and obtain a high, high-quality harvest, it is necessary to create optimal conditions. Depending on the growth period, champignons need a different environment: during the growing of the mushroom, the temperature in the cellar is maintained higher than at the time of the extension of the fruit bodies.

    The space for growing fungi is desirable to zonate space:

    • allocate the room where the Missel's landing will be carried out;
    • Divide a separate area for growing, the growing of champignon bodies.

    Important. Zoning facilitates champignon cultivation process, in accordance with the container graph, you can simply move from one room to another.

    Preparation of substrate

    One of the key factors of obtaining a rich harvest of champignons is a properly selected substrate. Mushrooms - saprophytes, these are organisms that develop by pulling the energy from the organic matter, which they split into simple compounds.

    How to prepare a substrate for champignons?

    Mushrooms, usually grown in a compost. The substrate for champignons may include the following components:

    • manure (horse, cow, in exceptional cases of pork or bird litter);
    • gypsum;
    • fertilizers (carbamide, superphosphate);
    • a piece of chalk;
    • straw;
    • Alebaster flour.

    When preparing a nutrient medium for mushrooms, it is preferable to choose horse manure.

    Substrate preparation options:

    1. 5 kg of a cowboat or horse manure, 200 g of carbamide and superphosphate, 10 kg of straw, 700 g of gypsum, 500 g of chalk;
    2. 3 kg of chicken litter, 500 g of alabaster flour, 10 kg of straw, 200 g of carbamide, 700 g of gypsum.

    Important. To cover the finished substrate 1 m 2A plot for the cultivation of champignons is necessary 40 kg of straw. The number of other components increase proportionally.

    To get a substrate for planting mushrooms, a few weeks need. Compost is prepared on the street or indoors with good ventilation, without access atmospheric precipitation. It is desirable that the process passed on the open sun.

    The essence of the procedure: in the container or pit, the layers are laid down and straw. Due to the bacteria present, the components decompose occurs and the necessary nutritional environment for champignons is obtained. When decomposition, the temperature of the substrate may rise to 70 ° C.

    Sequence of cooking substrate

    For compost, take clean, new straw without signs of the disease. In advance, soak it for 24 hours in water tanks.

    The future substrate for the cultivation of champignons is prepared as follows:

    1. Locked the straw, the layer of manure (litter) is placed on top, each row should be 25-30 cm;
    2. Each layer is evenly sprinkled with carbamide, watering with water;
    3. finish when a pile reaches a height of 1 m, the upper layer should consist of straw;
    4. covered;
    5. Leave in this form for 1 week.

    After 7 days, the layers are stirred using forks, gypsum is being added. After 3-4 days, the procedure is repeated. Make chalk, superphosphate.

    Important. Compost should not displace. During each slit, if necessary, it is moisturized.

    The following mixing is carried out every 4 days. On average, the substrate is ready for landing after 3 weeks.

    The suitability of the substrate for landing is determined by color and consistency:

    • The base is soft;
    • The substrate is painted in brown;
    • Straw is easy to break.

    Placing a substrate in beds

    If the substrate complies with the necessary standards, it is filled in capacity for further cultivation of mushrooms. Prior to that, the temperature of the substrate should be slightly reduced.

    Options for placing landings indoors:

    1. Rack. They make sides, fall asleep compost. The height of the nutritional base is 45 cm.
    2. Box. Fill with a substrate 20-25 cm high. Are placed by rows.
    3. Land. If in the room for growing champignons of an earth floor, beds can be made on the floor. Groin height - 70 cm, length and width of 75 cm.

    Mushroom Mycelium and Landing Technology

    Landing mycelium is considered the most difficult stage in the cultivation of champignons.

    Before planting, check the temperature of the substrate. At a depth of 5 cm, it must be no higher than 28 ° C. Otherwise, mycelium may die.

    Shampignon varieties

    The fungal champignon is cultivated in laboratory conditions on cereals or organic residues. More than 50 varieties of this mushroom are derived by breeders.

    You can usually meet 2 varieties of champignon mushrooms:

    • double-rooted brown;
    • Two white.

    These 2 varieties do not have significant differences in cultivation. Difference in the color of adult mushrooms.

    Important. For cultivation, you can use both the fungne that has grown in a natural environment.

    Landing mycelium

    The cereal and null mycelium are distinguished by landing technology.

    In the cereal of mycelium, the grain (oats, wheat, rye) serves as a substrate for the argument of mushrooms. Sow it as follows:

    • From the beds remove the layer of the Earth (3 cm);
    • Chaotically sowed the grain;
    • sprinkled with soil, roll up.

    Mycelium, grown on organic remnants, looks like a piece of soil. Before landing, it should be divided into small pieces and decompose on a flat surface.

    The dungy mycelium is planting in a chess order, leaving a distance of 20 cm. The fungne is deepened into the substrate not more than 3 cm.

    Care for mushrooms

    The care system of champignons after landing includes:

    • permanent temperature control, air humidity;
    • substrate moisturizing;
    • frustration compost soil;
    • Carrying.

    Temperature and humidity

    Immediately after planting the mushrooms in the room should be warm enough - 24-26 ° C. Air humidity is supported in the range of 55-60% better than 90%.

    The mushrooms for 12 days goes to the recess in the substrate. After that, champignons begin to increase the body of the mushroom. By this point in the cellar, the temperature should be reduced to 18-20 ° C.

    Air humidity increases by multiple wetting of the Earth, floor. If special greenhouses are used to grow mushrooms, they must be shaded and ventilated using fans placed on the roof. In the case of using side fans, unfavorable drafts will be created. Any temperature fluctuations need to be minimized.

    Important. The substrate is watered with a sprayer.

    Preparation of compost soil

    Soil is needed for the growth of the fruit body. 12 days after landing compost covered the soil.

    The following types of soil are suitable for rising mushrooms:

    • peat;
    • soup;
    • nerd land;
    • loam.

    The main condition - the land must be light, finely dispersed, breathable.

    The soil is covered with compost in a moistened form, a layer of 3-4 cm.

    Conditions indoors:

    • The room temperature is maintained at 16-18 ° C;
    • air humidity - 65-85%;
    • The cellar is regularly ventilated.

    Important. The humidity of the soil should not be above 60%.

    Harvesting

    Champignons grown indoors are pleased with the first mushrooms in 2-4 months. Eating champignons exclusively white. Potamy instances are removed, emit.

    Ripe mushrooms are not cut, each mushroom is carefully unscrew from the substrate. The remaining fossa fall asleep soil, watered.

    The yield of mushrooms is high enough: from a small bed in 1 m 2It is possible to collect 5-10 kg of champignons.

    The harvest can be collected several times, growing mushrooms at home can last 4 months. Do not forget to remove patients, dead specimens, constantly keep the soil wet.

    Before use, freshly plated mushrooms should be washed, remove contaminated bases of the legs, the remains of the substrate. White champignons store 4 days in the refrigerator, and brown - 6 days. Mushrooms can be frozen, marine, preserve.

    Conclusion

    Grow champignons is more difficult than familiar vegetables. Champignons of capricious, without proper conditions of cultivation may die. Each mushroom industry ultimately develops its own technology, given the existing raw materials, equipment, own skills.

    Success depends on the ability of mushroomovod to observe the process of cultivation and draw conclusions, conscientiousness and hard work. In the cultivation of mushrooms there are positive parties: they do not need light, the crop can be collected in 2 months. Successful cultivation and pleasant appetite!

    For the cultivation of champignons at home, it is not necessary to have experience. Purchase high-quality mycelium and master the technology, forces by any connoisseur of mushrooms. Compliance with the rules, a reasonable choice of place, control of humidity and temperature allow you to collect a harvest throughout the year. If you grow mushrooms yourself, you can be confident as a product that is valued for low calorie and pleasant taste.

    What you need to know the novice mushroom

    In addition to time and cash investments, the beginning of the mushroom should have an appropriate room. It should be cool, darkened and without drafts. An excellent option will be the cellar, basement, major garage, greenhouse or storage room. With the onset of heat, when the air temperature holds about 20 ° C, champignons can be grown on their own household plot. In the room, the temperature should be maintained within + 12 ... + 20 ° C, with the necessary humidity - 65-85%. The temperature of the soil should be kept at + 15 ... + 17 ° C.

    The possibility of growing champignons of the house depends on such factors:

    • premises;
    • the quality of the substrate;
    • Mycelium (Mushrooms);
    • Temperature mode and humidity.

    In the room you need ventilation, since for the development of mushrooms, ammonia pairs and carbon dioxide are distinguished. The arrangement of mycelium does not affect this, but during the formation of the mushrooms, such an atmosphere slows down the growth of champignons and harms human health.

    Mushrooms do not need light. They can grow in complete darkness. But for care works, adjustable lighting is necessary. The temperature is measured by a conventional thermometer and adjust with heating devices (in regions with strong frosts), and watering perform irrigation nozzles or use manual cans with small sieve.

    The crop depends on the quality of mycelium (mushrooms), which is evenly distributed over the entire surface of the nutrient substrate. It is a vegetative body of the mushroom, consists of fine binding threads with a characteristic mushroom smell. This is an important body that is responsible for nutritional function and reproduction.

    The right choice of high quality mushrooms is 50% success.

    How to buy high-quality mycelium

    Newbie in the breeding of mushrooms should be aware of how the quality product looks like. A good mycelium has a small fluffy white flare and clear threads. On the sight he loose and gives dampness.

    A person without experience is difficult to grow a fungentic on his own. At all stages of mycelium requires sterility and special equipment. The quality product is grown in laboratory in three ways: by obtaining it from the dispute, release from a piece of fruit and with the help of selection. For growing at home, sowing material is made from mushroom particles, sold in specialized stores and on Internet sites.

    High-yielding varieties that are easy to care for are:

    • Hayser a15;
    • Sylvan 130;
    • Somycel 512.

    This mycelium meadow champignon is prolific and unpretentious, and its quality is tested by time. It is sold in packages (1-2 kg) or in liter banks. Taste qualities and nutritional value have the same indicators, the difference lies only in the color of the mushroom. It will be a white or brown shade.

    Self-cultivation of mushrooms

    Those who wish to grow mycelium independently to take three free rooms under the home laboratory:

    • The first will be a cooking room in which grain is prepared;
    • The second is an inoculative intended for sewage;
    • The third is incubation. It will grow mushrooms.

    It is necessary to stock laboratory kitchenware: Petri dish, test tubes, transparent jars with hermetic covers and inoculation loop.

    It will take such equipment:

    • cooking plate;
    • refrigerators compartment;
    • autoclave;
    • thermostat;
    • alcohol burner;
    • bactericidal lamp and filter;

    The technology of self-cultivation of mycelium is performed as follows:

    1. In sterile conditions, the particle of the fruit body is placed in a tube with a liquid nutrient medium and seal for two weeks.
    2. Stored at a temperature of + 24 ° C.
    3. The nutrient medium serves as agar (natural thickener and high molecular weight polysaccharide). It is prepared from carrots or oatmeal. It guarantees an antibacterial and anti-influence effect. It has enough polysaccharides - the main nutritional components for growth and development.
    4. Agar is preparing, observing such a proportion: 1 serving of oatmeal for 2 water portions. Boiling 30-60 minutes. Then cooled, filtered and sterilized.

    Within 14 days, mycelium sprouts and forms clean uterine culture. It is placed in Petri bowl and stored at a temperature of +1 or +2 C.

    In sterile banks with boiled cereals (Oats, wheat) transplan the uterine culture and grown in it sterile grain mycelium. The resulting sowing material is placed in the thermostat and are kept at a temperature of + 22 ... + 24 ° C, until the entire substrate touches the fungal. A finished grain product is spreading five more or seven times.

    If the laboratory costs are not frightened and there is a free area, you can grow the fungne yourself. But the purchase of the finished sulfuric material of sterile production will save from additional spending time and finance.

    Preparation of substrate

    One of the important points in the cultivation of champignons is the preparation of compost. Compliance with technology gives half guarantees for a prosperous outcome of production. The substrate includes such ingredients:

    • straw - 10 kg;
    • manure (pork, horse, cow, bird) - 5 kg;
    • Gypsum - 700 g;
    • Ammonia Seliver - 800 g;
    • chalk - 500 g;
    • urea - 500 ml;
    • Superphosphate - 200 g;
    • ammonium sulfate - 800 g;
    • Alebaster - 500 g

    It turns out one bag weighing 20 kg. If you lay it for 20 cm, the bag is enough for 5 square meters. m.

    If chicken may be used, phosphate and chalk are not added. They are replaced by alabaster in the amount of 500 grams.

    The preparation of the compost is better carried out in the open air, since the heat from the ripening of manure and straw reaches +70 ° C. In the room, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and ammonia couples accumulate and create a poisonous atmosphere. It is necessary to highlight a sunny place for drying hay. Preferably equipped with a canopy in case it rains.

    The substrate is prepared by creating several layers:

    1. In the wide capacity you need to soak the straw per day.
    2. Then decompose it into 4 parts.
    3. Divide the manure to the same parts.
    4. Stop layers, alternating manure with straw (first layer).
    5. Each layer is warm water. To withstand a day.
    6. On the third day, mix the layers of the layers. Add fertilizers - superphosphate and urea.
    7. Wait 24 hours. At this stage, the compost makes a strong smell of ammonia.
    8. On the fifth day you need to mix the substrate, pouring the remaining additives (alabaster, chalk or gypsum).
    9. Leave for 3-4 weeks, stirring it in 2-3 days.

    It is necessary to produce the useful elements to be evenly distributed throughout the substrate, and the compost acquired a homogeneous consistency. It is impossible to allow excessive moisture, otherwise the water will purl the necessary ingredients required for the development and growth of mushrooms. On the preparation of compost leaves about 27 days. It is considered ready when an ammonia smell disappears, the mixture acquires a light brown color, will not stick to the hands, and the dirty trail remains on the palms. The temperature of the substrate should not exceed +25 ° C.

    If independent preparation is considered time consuming, and do not want to wait for the result for almost a month, the mixture can be ordered in the store.

    Growing at home

    The cultivation of champignons at home includes the right landing, care and storage of mushrooms. Having learned to produce compost or buying ready-made, knowing the necessary temperature, humidity and other important points, you can begin to independently breed this food product.

    Mushrooms can be grown all year round, periodically replacing the substrate to the new and pouring fresh mycelium.

    Landing

    Landing must be made immediately after cooking or opening compost and mycelium.

    On a flat surface, covered with a polyethylene film, lay a layer of compost - 18-20 cm. It lies 2-5 days to compact, then the grooves in a checker order (2-3 cm depth) and pour mycelium into them. Per quarter. M accounts for 300-400 g of sowing material. The distance between the grooves should be 25 cm.

    The temperature of the dung soil should be within + 17 ... + 22 ° C, air - + 15 ... + 22 ° C.

    The first 12 weeks of mycelium should be unscrewed, as the soil should always be raw. Behind the sowing should be observed to see how the mushrooms are gradually growing on the substrate. Such a process speaks of a prosperous landing and means that everything is done true, according to the rules.

    Growing and care

    During the incubation period, fruit bodies are not visible on the surface. At this time, it is necessary to maintain air humidity at 70-90%. To prevent the soil drying, it can be covered with paper or tissue made from natural materials. Recommended spraying from the spray gun.

    During growth, the room temperature rises and needs to be monitored so that it does not exceed + 26 ° C. Monitor the level of humidity that should remain within 65-85%.

    After 10 or 12 days, mushroom threads begin to spread.

    After they have become well visible, they fall asleep the earth by 3-4 cm and wait another 5 days. For a new soil layer, such a composition is made: peat - 5 parts, limestone - 4. Water with water and stirred. Reduce air temperature to + 15 ° C and waiting for the appearance of mushrooms.

    Harvesting

    The first champignons appear in 3-4 months. The most generous harvest fee falls on the first three "waves". It is possible to understand that mushrooms are ripe, if you look at their hat. Its lower part is tightened with white film, and thin brown plates are not yet visible.

    It is impossible to use a knife for cutting. The mushroom neatly twisted together with the roots so that there are no parts in the hole, and they did not get harmful bacteria.

    After harvesting the soil (compost), ground mixed with peat and limestone is sprinkled. On the site of the filmed mushrooms in 2 weeks will appear new champignons.

    Storage

    The mushroom has a delicate structure and with improper storage it will quickly deteriorate. It becomes brittle, soft and loses useful properties. Stages of storage preparation:

    1. Crop the lower part of the leg, on which the residues of the compost are preserved.
    2. Then fold into wooden or cardboard boxes of 6 kg. If the weight is more, the product begins to break under his own weight.
    3. If you do not send immediately to the implementation, stored at a temperature of + 1 ... + 3 s. Under such conditions, they retain freshness up to 14 days.

    For production in large volumes, the alternative will be the acquisition of special equipment in which the temperature can be maintained for long-term storage.

    Methods of growing

    There are several popular ways and each of them has its own characteristics.

    In Teplice

    Growing champignons at home in the greenhouse involves the presence of a greenhouse with darkened glasses. It must be made of glass, polycarbonate or thick wire, covered with film. Mushrooms do not tolerate direct sunlight, and the greenhouse needs to darken. The film can be painted paint, splashing the wet ground or cover the camouflage grid.

    In winter, a greenhouse is suitable, which is used for landing vegetables early spring. But after use, it is necessary to disinfect the greenhouse and eliminate dampness. For the construction of a new work, these works are carried out:

    1. The greenhouse is deepened by 50-70 cm so that the internal temperature and humidity are slightly lower.
    2. The height of the walls above the ground is left at 20-80 cm.
    3. The roof is covered with a layer of manure (30 cm). In the frost you can sow on it snow. If in the region of severe winters, you need to spend heating.
    4. For insulation, inventory with valves use felt. The windows make on the roof of the greenhouse (one six meters). They are necessary for air circulation. If the beads are not enough, you need to supply the greenhouse of the injected ventilation.

    If the roof is made of boards, it will have to be changed every two years. The tree quickly rotates under the shelter from the dung soil, so it is not recommended to do it from expensive material.

    Mushrooms are grown on racks, having them in several tiers on both sides of the main passage. The amount of shelves depends on the size of the room. And the higher the roof, the more it turns out the racks.

    The greenhouse is not installed on the sunny side. The ideal place for it is the shadow side of the site.

    In bags

    In this way, the mushrooms are grown if there is little space in the room, and to once again not moisturize the soil. In addition, the use of such a container requires smaller cash compared to the shelf or container system. Such a cultivation method has additional advantages:

    • Polyethylene bags restrain the spread of diseases and pests;
    • If there is a need to rearrange the bag, it is easy to put it out;
    • Such a package is mobile, which allows you to grow mushrooms according to the seasons: in warmth on the street, in the cold period - in the basement;
    • Bags can be put on multi-tiered stands, and not one level.

    To grow champignons in bags, you need to select a polyethylene container with the following parameters: Capacity - 20-40 kg, diameter - 30-40 cm. Compost thickness - 20-30 cm.

    You can not put bags close to each other. Each of them creates its own medium, and the exchange of bacteria is undesirable.

    In the basement

    First of all, the selected basement must be disinfected, since the fungal product is sensitive to pathogenic bacteria. You need to make sure that there is ventilation indoors, and it can be maintained in it the necessary level of humidity. Low humidity gives a small harvest of weakened mushrooms, high - contributes to the spread of mold.

    It is possible to displaced a basement with sulfur checkers or with a 4% formalin, splashing it from the sprayer. An excellent way of disinfection is the surfaces of the surface of the walls with the addition of copper sulfate. This requires:

    • 10 liters of water;
    • 2 kg of hazed lime;
    • 100 g of copper mood.

    When disinfection, it is recommended to wear a protective mask, gloves and a bathrobe, better indoor. After processing the basement must be well ventilated. Installation of the air purifier is not mandatory, but if finances allow it to be better to purchase it.

    In the summer, conventional fans will be saved from overheating, the main thing is not to direct them directly to champignons. In winter, heating may be required, and it is necessary to save the situation with the help of heating, and not electrical heaters that dried air.

    The basement must be divided into two zones. One is necessary for the germination of the mushroom, the other is fruiting. Between zones you need to make a partition. If this is not done, then by collecting one harvest, you will have to remove the compost, and the mycelium is new to plant. For healthy growth, you need to pour a ready-made substrate with hot water (not boiling water) or steam. If in mycelium there are pathogens bacteria, such a procedure will destroy them.

    Mushroom blocks should not be too tightly filling with a compat. The land under champignons should be loose and allow air to circulate. Waiting for the harvest, you need to watch the shoots in order not to miss the disease or pests.

    Recipe marinated champignons

    Mushrooms in marinade - a very tasty snack for a festive table. It is easy to cook, spending quite a bit of time and strength. In addition, they are much more delicious mushrooms purchased in the supermarket.

    Ingredients:

    • Mushrooms - 0.5 kg;
    • water - 0.5 l;
    • Vinegar (6-9%) - 50 ml;
    • Salt - 1 tbsp. l.;
    • Sugar - 1.5 tbsp. l.;
    • Lovel Lavral - 3 pcs.;
    • Grains mustard - 1 tsp;
    • fragrant pepper - 8 pcs.;
    • Garlic - 3 teeth.

    How to cook:

    1. Clean and cut champignons.
    2. Pour water in the pan.
    3. Add salt, sugar, pepper, mustard, bay leaf.
    4. Pour a tablespoon of sunflower oil and boil another 30 seconds.
    5. Add mushrooms, pecking for 7 minutes.
    6. Pour a bit of vinegar and boil another 5 minutes.
    7. Share mushrooms in the jar and pour marinade.
    8. Cool and place in the refrigerator.

    After 24 hours, a delicious and nutritious snack is ready.

    The technology of growing champignons at home is not as complicated, as it seems at first glance. High-quality mycelium, the correct substrate and compliance with the temperature regime guarantee a decent harvest. Self-cultivation of the product allows us all year round with mushroom dishes, and cultivation on a large scale is able to become a source of constant income.

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