Lymph nodes are part of the immune system, they produce cells to help struggle with infections. This is a kind of biological filters, delaying various infections and do not give them to penetrate into the entire body.
The appearance of inflammation of lymph nodes in the neck area is quite frequent, most often occurring in children. In scientific, it is called cervical lymphadenitis.
The inflammation in the neck lymph nodes is localized, and it is very dangerous to the fact that these very lymph nodes are pretty close to the brain. This means that if the cervical area of the lymphatic system cannot cope with the infection, the risk of penetration into brain tissues will increase significantly.
When inflammation of cervical lymph nodes, it is necessary to urgently turn to a specialist. To diagnose and conduct effective drug treatment on time.
What are lymph nodes for?
Increased lymph node is a signal from the immune system, it means that it is no longer able to protect the body from the infection that penetrates it or the respected autoimmune inflammation. Most of the lymphatic nodes are located on the neck of a person, this is:
- front and rear;
- front and rear;
Depending on which group or which lymph node has increased, can be suspected and the cause of inflammation. The functions of lymph nodes are:
- participation in biochemical processes - exchange;
- the formation of immune cells - immunopoietic;
- stimulation of reproduction of cells of certain organs - stimulating;
- An obstacle to the penetration into the body of alien substances is barrier.
- the formation of uniform elements of blood - lymphocytes - hematopoietic;
In the norm, peripheral lymph nodes, including cervical, are defined as unit rounded formation with a diameter of 3 to 8 mm (submandibular - up to 1 cm, inguinal - up to 1.5 cm), soft consistency, movable, not soldered with each other and surrounding Fabrics, painless.
With an increase in the formation loses elasticity and becomes somewhat painful due to irritation of nervous receptors of surrounding tissues.
Causes of inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck
Why are lymph nodes in the neck? The reasons for this can be quite a lot. Typically, cervical lymphadenitis is not an independent disease, but is a complication of the inflammatory process of other localization (more often than organs located in the immediate vicinity of lymph node).
In some cases, lymphadenitis still occurs primary: the infectious agent penetrates the lymphatic network through the skin or mucous membrane damaged.
The main reasons for the inflammation of the lymph node on the neck:
- ARVI, flu;
- otitis, stomatitis;
- venereal diseases;
- viral infection, fungus, parasites;
- pharyngitis, angina, sore inflammation;
- tumor lesion of the lymphatic system;
- mechanical damage to the cervical lymph node;
- A pronounced decrease in immune forces caused by a long disease, supercooling, anemia, avitaminosis, stress and nervous overvoltage.
Less frequently increased lymph nodes may indicate violations in the body due to:
- thyroid diseases;
- violations of exchange processes;
- allergic reactions;
- Diseases of connective tissue.
In most cases, lymphadenitis is formed when pathogenic microorganisms appeared in the body. They often include staphylococci and streptococci. With a small defeat of the body, the response from the lymphatic system may not be.
Symptoms of cervical lymphadenitis
With inflammation of lymph nodes, such symptoms are observed:
- A significant increase in cervical lymph nodes in size;
- Subjective local symptoms (lymph nodes on the neck are sick, painful sensations are significantly enhanced during swallowing, as well as with palpation of the affected area);
- General symptoms (general malaise, temperature rise, constant feeling of fatigue, weakness).
It is important to understand that lymph nodes consist of lymphatic tissue. It is in lymph nodes a large number of protective cells that help to struggle with bacterial and cancer cells. Lymph nodes are important for immunity, using their body actively struggles with viruses, microbes.
What to do with the inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck
The lymph node was inflamed on her neck what to do? Initially, you need to visit the medical insurance, the diagnosis of this disease is not particularly difficult for a qualified specialist. The diagnosis is based on the study of the patient's anamnesis, its survey, inspection results and the study of complaints.
To clarify the diagnosis is assigned to conduct such studies:
- X-ray of soft tissues of the neck and submandibular zone;
- biopsy affected lymphatic node;
- magnetic resonance and computed tomography;
- excision of lymph node with histological analysis.
Since lymphadenitis is grozen by its consequences for the human body, the treatment must be started immediately after diagnosis.
How to treat inflammation of lymph nodes
The inflammation of the cervical lymph nodes is predominantly a secondary state, therefore, first of all, it is necessary to cure the main disease, and the removal of infection and improving immunity will contribute to the relief from lymphadenitis.
Most often, inflamed lymph nodes in the neck area are treated with conservative ways. The patient shows compliance with beddown. You can not walk for a long time, not to wind or on a strong heat, play sports, actively walk through the rooms. Recommended antibiotics selected taking into account the sensitivity of the infectious pathogen, mental and physical peace. Also, along with various drugs, it is obligatory to receive polyvitamins, immunostimulating drugs and products with a high content of vitamin C.
For purulent forms of lymphadenitis, the formed foci are revealed, drainaged, be sure to assign enhanced antibacterial therapy. Such patients usually conduct treatment in the hospital, under the supervision of qualified specialists.
The disease in no way should be treated at home. This is due to the fact that the cervical lymph nodes are located close to the brain and the pathological process on ascending threatens to reach the brain and lead to meningitis.
Also, launched lymphadenitis threatens to enter infection into blood, and therefore sepsis (blood infection) and the separation of infection throughout the body may occur. In this case, the patient's life threatens a deadly danger.
What to do after recovery to avoid inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck? So, as lymphadenitis relates to a disease that can develop for many reasons, it can be understood that as such tips and recommendations on the complete prevention of this disease do not exist.
To prevent the occurrence of cervical lymphadenitis, try:
- support the health of the immune system;
- Do not launch acute infectious diseases;
- eliminate the possibility of staying on draft or supercooling;
- properly hardening;
- prevent the emergence of microtrams, as well as infection of the wounds;
- Observe personal hygiene and use a gauze bandage during the epidemiological season.
If the lymph node still inflamed and delivers inconvenience, then the first thing to do is to turn to the doctor. Especially when there is a suspicion of purulent lymphadenitis. A specialist will diagnose, and say what to do.
Inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck - treatment
The increase in lymph nodes on the neck, as a rule, occurs as a result of contact with bacteria and viruses. If the increase is caused by infection, it is called lymphadenitis. Less often cause cancer.
The lymphatic system plays a vital role in maintaining the life of our body and is the main component of our immunity. Lymph nodes can be adopted in the neck, chin, armpits and groin. In some cases, no actions and warm compresses are not needed for treatment. Treatment depends on the cause of the occurrence.
The lymphatic system includes a network of organs and lymph nodes located all over the body. Most of them are in the head and neck. An increase in lymph nodes indicates that something is wrong in the body. The first signs are sensitivity, soreness and an increase in lymph nodes to the size of the beoline and even more.
Depending on the cause of the appearance, the symptoms of the disease may be as follows:
Rubber, sore throat, fever and other signs of infection of the upper respiratory tract.
The tumor of lymph nodes throughout the body may indicate HIV, mononucleosis or immune disorders, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.
Inflatable limbs may indicate blocking the lymphatic system caused by tumors in lymph nodes that are deeply under the skin and do not fit.
- When the treatment of lymph nodes on the neck requires an appeal to a doctor
- The lymph nodes over time come to normal if the cause of the increase was an infection that succumbed to treatment. But there are a number of factors under which to consult a doctor:
- Swelling without an explicit reason
- Duration 2-4 weeks
- Nodes are difficult to do and do not move when pressed on them
Accompanied by permanent fevers, night sweat and weight loss
Accompanied by sore throat and difficulty in swallowing.
Why lymph nodes are inflated on the neck - reasons The lymphatic assembly is a small, round or bell cell cluster covered with a capsule from connective tissue. Cells are a combination of lymphocytes that produce protein particles that are combined with viruses and macrophages that split harmful substances. Lymphocytes and macrophages are filtered with a lymphotic fluid that passes through the whole body and protects us. Lymph nodes are located groups, each of which serves as a certain area of the body. An increase in the specific area can suggest the cause. The most common is an infection, especially viral, such as a cold. But there are other species
lymphadenitis of cervical lymph nodes
- , such as parasitizing or bacterial, which can cause an increase in lymph nodes.
- Common infections:
- Ear infections
- Tooth infection - abscess
- Ultipical infections:
- Sexually transmitted (syphilis and others)
- Bacterial infection from cat scratch
- Autoimmune diseases:
- Rheumatoid arthritis
Other types of cancer that distributed metastases in lymph nodes
If the cause is infection, and it was not treated properly, complications may arise.
Alicise formation. Localization of the accumulation of pus caused by infection. Pump contains liquid, white blood cells, dead fabrics, bacteria and other elements dangerous to the body. If an abscess occurs, drainage or treatment with antibiotics may be required. Significant damage can be applied if there are vital organs affected.
Bloodyt infection. Bacterial, may arise anywhere in your body and progress until sepsis caused by significant blood infection. Sepsis can lead to polyorgan deficiency and death. Treatment includes hospitalization and intravenous administration of antibiotics.
- To diagnose the disease, the doctor may require:
- Medical medical history
- Body check
- Blood test
Chest x-ray and computed tomography
Lymph node biopsy (as a last resort).
- Treatment of lymph nodes on the neck
- If the cause is a virus, lymph nodes on the neck themselves will be restored to the previous state after the treatment of the infection itself. But if this does not happen or there is another reason, the following treatment may be required:
- Infection. The most common means for the treatment of increased lymph nodes are antibiotics. If the cause was HIV infection, the treatment is required.
An autoimmune disease. With a lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, the proper treatment of the disease itself is necessary.
Cancer. Depending on the type and degree of development, surgical operation, irradiation or chemotherapy may be required.
- Treatment of lymph nodes on the neck at home
- If your lymph nodes swallowed and cause painful sensations, you can alleviate the symptoms in the following ways:
- The effects of heat. Apply a warm wet compress, for example, a sponge, moistened in hot water.
Anesthetic. Aspirin, ibuprofen and acetaminophen can help relieve pain and knock down the temperature. Do not give aspirin to children without consulting a doctor.
Relaxation. Good full-fledged rest - sometimes it's all that you need to bring your condition to normal.
See also: lymphatic system We suggest you familiarize yourself with the ruler of the ESMA for medicine. Publication date April 20 2021.
April 26, 2021. Definition of the disease. Causes of the disease
- This is an increase in lymph nodes in the neck, caused by inflammation.
With acute lymphadenitis, the increased lymph node becomes dense and painful, the skin of the inflamed area blues, the local temperature rises and weakness appears. In case of chronic lymphadenitis of other symptoms, in addition to increasing the lymph node, may not be. Causes of cervical lymphadenitis The lymphatic system is part of the immune system, so any disease in which cellular immunity is activated may cause inflammation of lymph nodes. [one] .
Lymphadenitis may arise due to inflammation in the dental system and the ENT organs. Less often, local skin diseases, such as furuncul, carbuncoon and an incorporated epidermal cyst become.
Specific and nonspecific pathogens can lead to the development of cervical lymphadenitis. In the first case, lymphadenitis accompanies the main disease, the features of inflammation of lymph nodes are directly dependent on the causative agent.
In the second case, purulent wounds and inflammatory processes associated with the tissues of the tooth and periodontight are becoming the cause of the tissues and periodontics, such as caries, complicated by periodontitis. The clinical picture from the causative agent does not depend.
- Pathways of specific lymphadenitis:
- Paluents of non-specific lymphadenitis:
- bacteria - staphylococci, streptococci and anaerobic microorganisms;
viruses - influenza, herpes, adenovirus, etc.; Mushrooms. Due to the increased activity of the lymphoid system in children, the disease occurs more often than in adults .
Symptoms of cervical lymphadenitis
When you find similar symptoms, consult your doctor. Do not self-medicate - it is dangerous for your health!
When viruses and bacteria penetrate into the body, the lymphatic system responds to them one of the first. Therefore, cervical lymphadenitis can be the first manifestation of the main disease. Later, other symptoms characteristic of tuberculosis, syphilis, plague, HIV or other infections are joined.
- Symptoms of acute lymphadenitis
- With acute serous lymphadenitis:
- The patient is worried about the primary inflammatory focus, such as tootten pain or throat pain;
- A painful and enlarged lymphatic node shifts when feeling;
- There is a moderate pain in the field of the lymphatic node, but it does not apply further; may slightly increase the temperature; .
There is a general weakness and pain when moving head
[four] These symptoms are a reason to immediately seek medical attention.
With acute purulent lymphadenitis
- Clinical signs are more pronounced. The causative agents of inflammation and their toxins are distributed in the body and fall into systemic blood flow, so intoxication increases and the symptoms are enhanced.
- Symptoms of acute purulent lymphadenitis:
- Lymph node increases and soldered with adjacent nodes and surrounding tissues;
- When feeling a lymph node, a sharp pain arises;
- Local and total body temperature increases;
- A chill appears, shortness of breath is possible; Headache and weakness arises; .
Redness of skin and edema develops
At this stage, the lymphatic node is caught up, but nearby fabrics are not yet amazed. Without timely medical care, neighboring lymph nodes and surrounding tissues are inflated and the complication of lymphadenitis - adenoflemmon appears.
Symptoms of chronic lymphadenitis
Chronic lymphadenitis often flows without symptoms. When exacerbating the main disease, such as tonsillitis or rhinitis, the lymph node is increased and causes a moderate pain to the patient.
Often, when curing or stabilizing the underlying disease, signs of lymphadenitis also disappear. But sometimes after several exacerbations of the lymph node fabric grow. Such a node does not hurt, but increased. Because of its surface location, patients often independently detect the change. Usually they notice that under the skin the "rolling ball" appeared on the neck. It is characteristic of chronic lymphadenitis, as the lymph node is not fascinated with the surrounding tissues. Pathogenesis of cervical lymphadenita
- - This is a network of organs, vessels and lymph nodes located all over the body.
- Functions of the lymphatic system:
- remove the metabolic products from tissues and transport them to the output authorities; maintain the constancy of the inner environment of the body; .
Immediate lymphocytes - cells of the immune system protecting the body from viruses and bacteria
With inflammatory processes, more often purulent, lymph (colorless liquid with a large number of lymphocytes) with bacteria and toxins from the focus of the lesion enters the lymph nodes - small structures that filter the lymphatic fluid. Passing through them, the lymph is enriched with lymphocytes and antibodies and is purified from foreign particles: microbial bodies, dead and tumor-like cells, dust particles. They are delayed and destroyed in lymph nodes.
Simply put, lymph nodes act as a barrier that does not give infections to spread through the body. However, with weak immunite and high pathogenicity of microbes, the node is infected and inflicted. It increases and becomes painful, but the surrounding tissues in the pathological process are not yet involved. Then inflammation increases, the nearby fabrics and symptoms of intoxication become more pronounced.
In the future, the lymphatic node is caught up. At first, the pus is inside it and beyond the capsule does not apply. Without treatment, the patient feels worse, in the lymph node becomes more, then the capsule breaks and purulent contents penetrates the surrounding tissues.
Classification and stage of development of cervical lymphadenitis By type of pathogen
Nonspecific (The clinical picture does not depend on the causative agent):
(lymphadenitis accompanies the main disease, its flow directly depends on the causative agent):
- By the type of disease
- Acute lymphadenitis:
- Chronic lymphadenitis: Hyperplastic - the lymphatic assembly increases and becomes more dense; its tissue is replaced by the connecting, sections of necrosis and calcinosis appear; .
- On localization of entrance gate infection
odontogenic-with dental damage;
- Uncommon - with the disease of the ENT organs, etc. By the location of lymphouzlov
- Chin lymphatic nodes Locked directly under the muscle layer, which makes it difficult to identify them. Lymph is falling from the tissues of the bottom lip, chin, teeth and tip of the tongue.
- Rangeless lymphatic nodes are under the jaw. They are very sensitive to inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity and can be inflamed during periodontitis. Lymph lifted lymph nodes, the angle of the eyes, a jack, nose, teeth, upper and lower lips. Surface cervical lymph nodes located in the upper third of the mouse muscle,
- Deep cervical lymph nodes Sit under it.
- Rear cervical lymph nodes Are on the rear surface of the neck on both sides of the spine.
- Tononic lymphatic nodes Located in the field of the corners of the lower jaw on each side. They are very vulnerable for diseases of the larynx and almonds.
Conditional lymph nodes
- Located behind the ear shells. In them, Lymph comes from ear, dark and frontal regions. Stages of development of the disease
- Catarrh. The lymphatic assembly increases, becomes dense, painful, but the surrounding tissues are not inflamed. There is pain in the affected area, the temperature rises, and symptoms of intoxication appear: headaches, weakness, lubrication in muscles and joints.
- Serous stage. Inflammation increases and captures surrounding tissues. The skin in the projection of the affected lymphatic node blushes, the pain is enhanced. The body temperature rises, the symptoms of intoxication become more pronounced.
Purulent stage. Without treatment, the lymphatic node is caught up, but the pus is inside the node itself and outside the capsule does not go out. The surrounding fabrics swell and can hit the knot capsule. Heaven, chills, lobby in body and strong headache. Gradually, the lymph node becomes more pus and the capsule is melted. Purulent contents penetrate the surrounding tissues, and their infection occurs.
At the initial stages The lymphatic node fabrics can either fully recover, or the disease passes into a heavy stage or chronic form. It depends on the nature and aggressiveness of the pathogen, the state of immunity and medical care provided.
In the chronic flow of lymphadenitis
The structure of the lymphatic node changes, the lymphoid tissue is growing, foci of decay and necrosis may appear. In this state, the knot can be many years, but it does not disturb. However, with a decrease in the body's protective forces, chronic inflammation can exacerbate and an purulent process will arise.
Complications of cervical lymphadenita
- Upon timely appeal to the doctor, nonspecific cervical lymphadenitis completely reversible. If you have a visit to the doctor to postpone, engage in self-medication or ignore the problem, then complications are often developing.
- One of them is adenoflemmon, or purulent inflammation of fatty fiber surrounding the amazed lymph node. Symptoms Adenoflems:
- an increase in body temperature up to 39-39.5 ° C and more;
- pronounced pain and edema;
- The skin of the affected area is reddened and hot;
chills, weakness and headache;
The palpation of the region around the inflamed lymph nodes causes a sharp pain, while there is a dense inflammatory infiltration (blood cluster with lymph). The general condition of the patient is severe, it requires emergency medical care. .
Another frequent complication of acute lymphadenitis is chronic inflammation of the lymphatic node. The disease can flow for a long time without symptoms, but such a lymph node is the "Slow Action Bomb." In the supercooling or other adverse effects of the body's protective forces decrease and inflammatory reaction may begin again. In addition, there are hypotheses that chronic inflammation leads to cancer
 A rare complication is the suppuration of the lymphatic assembly to form an abscess or phlegmon. Flegmon - acute spilled purulent inflammation of the cellulum spaces. Unlike abscess, it does not have clear boundaries. .
With phlegmon and abscess, surgery will need surgery, after which the scars can remain on the skin. Also, with these complications, a large number of pathogenic microorganisms accumulates in the body, which is especially dangerous when immunity decreased, for example, due to HIV
The active distribution of infection in the body can lead to a severe common complication - sepsis, in which the pathogen falls into the blood and can hit any organ. With a reduced immunite, the body does not cope with the infection and the patient may die.
If the body is weakened and can not resist the suppuration of the lymphatic node, but it is possible to disseminate infections to spread through the body, the focus of inflammation and healthy tissues is delimited. As a result, the capsule is formed, inside which the pus is accumulated. Over time, the pus becomes greater, the capsule is breaking and a fiscal move is formed through which the pus comes out. The resulting fiscased move after emptying abscess longly heals, and as a result, a coarse scar tissue is formed.
With an abscessive lymphadenite and adenoflemone, thrombophlebitis is often developing - a dangerous disease, in which the venous wall is inflamed, and a vessel is formed in the vessel. Against the background of thrombophlebitis, another serious disease can develop - encephalitis, or inflammation of brain tissues.
Diagnosis of cervical lymphadenitis
Diagnostic events in cervical lymphadenitis can be divided into clinical, hardware and laboratory. Clinical examination
Complaints: The patient usually notes pain in the affected lymphatic assembly, signs of general intoxication of the body and the symptoms of the underlying disease.
Studying anamnesis: The doctor finds out the intensity, nature of the flow and the time of symptoms. He also learns about the socio-domestic living conditions of the patient, immune status, the presence of chronic and viral diseases.
- The symmetry of the face and neck, the presence of ethnicity and redness is estimated. All cervical lymph nodes are feeling on both sides. If a changed lymph node was revealed, then the doctor describes its shape, consistency, size, surface, location, soreness, mobility while trying to displace and the state of symmetric lymph node.
- All lymph nodes are divided into two types:
superficial - sit in subcutaneous fatty tissue or under it;
Deep - arranged in the thickness of the muscles and next to the internal organs.
The cervical lymph nodes are mainly related to superficial, only some of them are located under the muscles. Surface location facilitates diagnostics - often the inflamed node is visually noticeable without additional methods.
These include ultrasound research (ultrasound), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance tomography (MRI).
- Ultrasound diagnostics is based on the ability of sound waves to reflect from different structures of the body.
- At ultrasound detect:
- location, shape, dimensions, quantity and structure of lymphatic nodes;
Spikes and fragments of the lymphatic node with surrounding tissues;
Inflammation in lymphatic vessels and surrounding tissues.
- The method of computed tomography uses X-ray radiation. With the help of the CT apparatus, layers are made, and the computer program collects them in a three-dimensional image.
- Computer tomography allows:
- study the exact location, quantity, shape and structure of lymph nodes;
- reveal the foci of necrosis or sclerosis - replacement of normal tissue connective;
- detect the fighting of the lymphatic node with the surrounding tissues;
reveal inflammatory changes in surrounding tissues;
Detect pathological fluid and inclusion.
When conducting a CT skull, it is possible to identify the causes of the disease, such as inflammation in the field of the inner ear, in the tissues surrounding the tooth, and in the cavity of the maxillary sinus.
- MRI is similar to CT, but more accurate and safer, as it is carried out without X-ray radiation. Laboratory methods
- Tests for detecting pathogen - The main method in the diagnosis of specific lymphadenitis. 9.
- General blood analysis - Special attention is paid to the EDIC indicators (erythrocyte sedimentation rate), the number of leukocytes and their percentage. Signs of inflammation: ESO above 15 mm / h and leukocyte levels more than 9 x 10
Under the puncture biopsy, the material is taken from the amazed lymph node with a hollow needle. With a thin-game aspiration biopsy, a thin needle and sterile syringe are used. The needle is introduced into the lymphatic node, and the fabric fence occurs. To eliminate the fence of fabrics outside the node, often the procedure is carried out under the control of ultrasound. Differential diagnosis .
Lymphadenitis should be distinguished from changes in lymph nodes with malignant tumors
Treatment of cervical lymphadenita
Elimination of primary focus of infection
The cervical lymphadenitis often provides acute or exacerbated periodontitis and complications of the launched caries, for example, acute purulent periostitis.
- If the tooth can be saved, the root channels are cleaned and seal. If it is impossible to restore the tooth, then it is removed. With a formed purulent focus, the patient is treated or removed, the abscess is opened. If the cervical lymphhadenitis developed because of the disease of the ENT organs, the center of acute inflammation should also be eliminated. Medical therapy
- Antibacterial therapy. A wide spectrum antibiotics are usually used, mainly with bactericidal effect. The components of such drugs destroy the cell wall of the bacterium or violate the processes of its metabolism, which leads to the death of the microbe. If the patient's condition is not improved, the biological material obtained from the lymph node is investigated and the sensitivity of microorganisms to drugs is detected.
- Antiviral drugs Used in viral origin of lymphadenitis, for example, with herpes.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs Push inflammation at the cellular level, reduce pain and reduce the temperature.
- Reduce the permeability of capillaries, which prevents the development of edema and stagnant processes. They also do not give leukocytes to penetrate the lesions and depress the production of substances that contribute to the development of inflammation. Physiotherapeutic treatment
- UHF (ultra-frequency therapy) aims to reduce waste, inflammation and pain.
- Ultrasound Apply to speed up the resolution of the inflammatory process.
- UFO (ultraviolet irradiation) Shown to reduce inflammation.
- Laser therapy Directed to reduce pain, improve nutrition and blood supply to the affected area.
- Electrophoresis - The method in which the drug substance penetrates into tissue with a constant electric current. In lymphadenitis, electrophoresis with potassium iodide and proteolytic enzymes are usually carried out.
aims to reduce pain, inflammation, swelling and stagnant processes in tissues.
Physiotherapeutic methods are used in Russia to reduce the terms of drug treatment, however, scientifically based evidence of their effectiveness is not enough. Surgical intervention
Opening of purulent focus
shown in purulent form of lymphadenitis and adenoflemone. Depending on the sizes of the focus, the operation is carried out under local or general anesthesia. In case of surgery, the purulent contents and tissues of the broken lymphatic node are removed.
After surgical treatment, drainage is placed in the wound, which provides an outflow of pus and does not allow the edges of the wound to grow. Then the wound is treated, updated its edges and shed. Disinfecting therapy Reduces the level of toxins in the body by their dilution, absorption of decay products and amplifying diuresis. и For this, they drink more fluid, and in case of severe condition, intravenously introduced .
It is recommended to be balanced and consume enough vitamins, macro- and microelements.
Features of the treatment of lymphadenita The treatment of cervical lymphadenitis directly depends on the stage and form of the disease.
With acute serous lymphadenitis Particular attention is paid to the primary hearth inflammation: inflammatory diseases of the teeth, the oralness of the mouth and the ENT organs. If the primary inflammatory process is stopped in the early stages, then the symptoms of acute serous lymphadenitis also become less pronounced. Almost 98% of cases in acute lymphadenitis, it is possible to identify the primary focus of the defeat
 . It is eliminated and prescribed antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory or antihistamine therapy.
In the development of purulent Eliminate the primary focus, reveal the mouth and remove the fabrics of the broken lymph node. The patient is usually in the hospital under round-the-clock supervision. Daily dressings are carried out, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antihistamine and disinfectant therapy are prescribed.
In chronic hyperplastic lymphadenitis
The amazed lymphatic node is removed, the treatment is also carried out in the hospital. Fragments of tissues are sent to the laboratory, processed and explored under the microscope. This procedure makes it possible to eliminate the oncological disease and prevent its development. Forecast. Prevention
Forecast Favorable if timely consult a doctor. Early treatment will help prevent irreversible changes in the lymph node and save its functions.
The cervical lymphhadenites should be at half a year to visit the dentist.
- Other preventive measures will help strengthen the immune system and prevent infection.
- This follows:
- There are more fruits and vegetables;
- be physically active;
- do not smoke and not abuse alcohol;
- more often wash your hands and carefully cook meat; do recommended vaccinations; .
If possible, reduce stress
Lymph nodes are particles of lymphatic tissue, which is located in a pocket of connective tissue, these are peculiar filters with lymphatic fluid. Lymph nodes are located throughout the body and the entire lymphatic system. In lymph nodes, protective cells are stored, which capture and destroy cancer and bacterial cells.
- Lymph nodes are very important for the immune system, as they are responsible for combating microbes, viruses and other malicious substances that fall into the body.
- Symptoms of the increase in lymph nodes on the neck:
On the neck appear small bumps.
Lymph nodes swell and because of this heavily swallow and speak.
The symptoms of an increase in lymph nodes on the neck are usually manifested due to extensive or local inflammation. But there are cases when an increase in lymph nodes is directly related to a cancer. Swollen, inflamed lymph nodes are called lymphodenopathy.
If you have risen the cold and diseases that affect the upper respiratory tract, the lymph nodes on the neck can increase for a while, and then return to normal form. It is very dangerous if the lymph node inflamed only on the one hand. All this may be signs of severe both infectious and non-infectious diseases. The disease of lymph nodes and their increasing on the neck can contribute to the increase and swelling of the almonds, salivary glands, the parole glands, the thyroid gland and the lacrimal glands. If you have similar symptoms, you should immediately apply for medical attention.
Increased lymph nodes on the neck of the back
- The increase in lymph nodes on the neck of the back indicates inflammatory processes in the body. So, swelling on the neck may be associated with a cold, angina, tuberculosis or sharp pharyngitis. In addition, the increase in lymph nodes on the neck from behind can talk about rubella, toxoplasmosis and other viral infections.
- The main symptoms of the increase in lymph nodes on the neck of the back:
- You can face soft swelling that may be painful or do not disturb at all.
Increased lymph nodes in the field of the nape can talk about a cancer disease that struck the lymph nodes on the neck.
The main symptom that accompanies the increase in lymph nodes on the neck is a cold illness.
It is impossible to avoid inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck, since it is impossible to protect the body from all microbes, bacteria and infections. But preventive measures will significantly reduce the risk of inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck of the back.
Do not start the treatment of viral infections and bacterial diseases. Be sure to go to the doctor if redness appeared on the neck.
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Inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck: What are the reasons?
The article is prepared by a specialist for informational purposes. We urge you not to engage in self-medication. When the first symptoms appear - contact your doctor. We recommend reading: "Why can not be engaged in self-medication?".
Many people do not pay attention to the condition of lymph nodes, while they serve as real "watchdogs". Even their minor increase in size may indicate a serious disease that requires emergency therapy.
Content: What is lymph node?
Lymph node (lymph node)
- This is the peripheral organ of the lymphatic system, which performs the function of the biological filter. Through this filter flows lymph coming from organs and parts of the body. In the human body, approximately 150 groups of lymph nodes, called regional.
Lymphadenopathy characterizes the most different pathology. The doctor inspecting the patient not always on standing lymphatic nodes can immediately make a diagnosis. However, this state indicates that a person needs an additional examination.
The increase in lymph nodes can be a sign of measles, infectious mononucleosis, tuberculosis, rubella, toxoplasmosis, adenoviral infection.
Most often, lymph nodes are infected with an infectious hearth. When a person hurts her throat, the nodes are first reacted, located on the neck and under the jaw. With the appearance of a glandy on the leg, the lymphatic fabric in the groin inflates. If the upper limbs are affected, the person develops an axillary lymphadenitis.
The cause of inflammation of lymph nodes is penetration into the lymphatic system of pathogenic flora. They are activated by getting on the protection of the body. Having restrained infection, the lymph nodes protect a person from the further spread of the disease. The lymphatic tissue begins to produce protective cells that accumulate in nodes in high concentrations. Therefore, their increase in size indicates that immunity has intensified and works hard. Therefore, when such a symptom appears, you need to immediately contact the doctor.
Causes of inflammation of lymph nodes
The cause of inflammation of lymph nodes (lymphadenitis) may become infectious and bacterial diseases.
Bacteria are divided into the following types:
Representatives of nonspecific flora: staphylococci, clostridy, cinema wand, protein.
Representatives of a specific form: tuberculosis stick, gonococci, causative agents of syphilis, brucella, actinomycetes, Tularemia bacteria.
At the age of 1-3 years, the inflammation of lymphatic nodes is most often due to diseases such as:
With inflammation of one lymph node, we can conclude that it works hard. With inflammation, the whole group of lymph nodes can be said with confidence that this is a disease that requires treatment.
But before starting treatment, it is very important to establish the actual cause of inflammation of lymph nodes. If lymph nodes in groin are increased, it may say that there are diseases of the urogenital system or the disease transmitted by the sexual way. In such a situation, the doctor will surely appoint a test analysis of blood and urine, analyzes for HIV, syphilis, hepatitis, and then, given the results, prescribes treatment. If lymph nodes in the armpits are inflated - it can also talk about the inflammation of the organs that are located in the area. On the ear infection or the angina will say inflamed lymph nodes located on the neck.
Full people with loose fatty tissue lymph nodes are inflamed especially often. This process can be independently bought without causing any changes in the body. It is necessary to show alertness if the node has long remains inflamed, hurts and significantly increases in size. Do not postpone the visit to the doctor in such a situation.
Also in science there is such a concept as lymphatism. It is characterized by an increase in several lymph nodes at once. Limphatism is diagnosed in children under 3 years old, as well as aged 6-10 years. This is due to the rapid growth of the child, or with an unbalanced menu when it feeds on dishes containing a large amount of protein.
Limphatism does not require treatment. However, the child must regularly observe the doctor. A hazardous signal becomes a combination of inflammation of lymph nodes with inflammation of a fork gland, which is also organ immune system. 4 most popular causes of increasing lymph nodes
The first reason was the cat scratched.
Feline claws are not sterile. They are many bacteria. If the infection falls into the wreck and with the blood current reaches the lymph nodes, then they will definitely inflate. Doctors call such a violation of feline scratch disease (benign lymimofaculosis). The animals themselves will not hurt. They are only distributors of infection. Another infection that cats can transmit is toxoplasmosis. It penetrates the human body through the mouth. The lymph nodes are inflamed, the body temperature rises to 37.5 ° C, the eyes can get toales, weakness increase.
The second reason is the corn on the leg. Often conventional corns are often the cause of inflammation of lymph nodes. If infection falls in them, it leads to inflammation of the nearest lymph nodes. Sometimes the body copes with impaired by their own forces, and sometimes the impuration of lymphatic tissue occurs. In this case, you need to contact the doctor. The surgeon can open the affected knot and rinse it. If this is not done, the likelihood of blood infection increases.
The reason is the third - furuncular. Furuncules often appear in humans due to hormonal imbalance in the body. If a person sweats greatly, the glands are formed in the area of the armpits. The skin around them is inflamed, blushes, a person can painfully even raise his hand. This condition is called hydraenitis. Self-medication in this case is unacceptable. Skin, prone to the formation of boils, need to be treated with salicylic alcohol or other antiseptic means. Furunculab is prohibited. It is necessary to visit the dermatologist and consult with him about adequate treatment. With increased sweating, it is necessary to carefully follow the rules of hygiene, it is not less than 2 times a day. Linen should be changed daily. Preference is recommended to give natural tissues.
The reason is the fourth - seal in the chest.
An increase in the axillary lymph nodes can be a sign of breast cancer. This is a dangerous disease that requires immediate origin. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly carry out chest self-examination. This procedure for women after 35 years should be the same familiar as cleaning the teeth. With the appearance of suspicious seals, you need to visit the gynecologist or mammologist, pass an ultrasound or mammography, as well as pass the analysis to the oncomarker. Self examine the chest 2 times a month in the lying position and standing. When sealing sections are detected, regardless of their size, you should contact the doctor. A special alertness must be exercised in the case when in recent time the chest was injured.
Inflammation of lymph nodes can be sharp and chronic.
Acute inflammation is caused by infectious agents, or occurs when a injury is obtained in close proximity to the lymph node.
Chronic inflammation occurs in the case when a weak-bent flora penetrates into the node. Sofilis, tuberculosis, brucellosis can provoke such a reaction. Inflammation may be the following:
Catarrh. It is typical for the early stage of infection. In this case, the lymphatic node begins to be soaked with plasma.
Hyperplastic inflammation. It characterizes the late stage of the pathological process. An increase in the node in size occurs due to the division of immune cells in it.
It occurs only when the node is filled with global bacteria, or when the node is wounded with direct ingress of infection. If a lot is a lot, it can penetrate the surrounding fabrics. If the pus does not encapsulate, then the person will develop phlegmon, which will spread throughout the neck. In the future, the likelihood of abscesses is increased.
Symptoms of inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck
The inflammation of the cervical lymph nodes will indicate such symptoms as:
Pain in the neck. It can palpate a seal that will be moving and elastic. If inflammation is intense, then the size of the seal will increase in size, reaching 5 cm in diameter and even more. In this case, it will be visible to the naked eye. A person will need anti-inflammatory therapy. When the node is dense, with fuzzy contours and beatings, if it is impossible to move aside, this may indicate the presence of atypical cells in it. In this case, the patient is given a diagnosis of Lymphadenopathy.
Seal will respond to pain when pressed.
A person may be painfully swallowed by food.
Over the lymph node, the skin often blues.
The body temperature can increase, the patient is quickly tired, he appears headaches.
In most cases, such an inflammatory response is preceded by an infection. A person may be pain in the throat on the background of ARVI, or transfer the cort or rubella, which are accompanied by the appearance of skin rash. With scarletin or sore throat, the body temperature rises to febrile marks. Osteomyelitis or phlegmon of soft tissues is accompanied by pain in the jaw.
What to do when detected by inflamed lymph nodes on the neck?
If one or more lymph nodes are inflated on the neck, you need to perform the following actions:
It should be examined by the inflammation area. Sometimes it is possible to detect an affection or injury.
The lymphatic node must be carefully moved and swell. If a person has lymphadenitis, he palpates a small ball. When the cause of discomfort is my sum, there will be no seals on the neck.
It is important to estimate the degree of soreness of the lymphatic assembly, to note whether it shifts relative to other tissues, whether the local body temperature is increased.
If the nodes are small, move well and there are many of them, it indicates a violation in the work of the immune system. To determine the cause of inflammation, you need to contact the infectious background.
When the knot is buggy, uneven, poorly moving and hurts you need to visit an oncologist. Such signs indicate a serious pathology.
Hot and painful lymph node can indicate a purulent process, in this case the surgeon consultation will need.
Pain when taking the lymphatic assembly and its mobility often indicates inflammation of the throat or oral cavity. The dentist or the otolaryngologist should be visited. With the child you need to go to the pediatrician.
After completed actions, you need to conduct a self-seeing. It is necessary to estimate the state of the throat and gums, soft tissues of the neck and face. If some kind of site is inflamed, then with a high probability it was it that it caused a change in lymph nodes. The next step is to appeal to the doctor.
Lymph nodes are located in groups. All of them collect lymph of certain sections of the neck or head. The doctor will not work to find the cause of pathology. However, with a strong inflammatory reaction or during tumors, all lymphatic nodes can be inflated. This may make it difficult to formulate a faithful diagnosis.
The dependence of a specific lymphatic node from the disease
The place of inflammation of the lymphatic node
Characteristics of the lymph node
Under the jaw
The knot hurts, moves, its consistency is soft
Orz, tonsillitis, cortex, inflammation of the salivary glands, deep caries, periodontitis, paramatzillar abscess
Knot buggy, not moving and does not hurt
Cancer tumor of oral cavity, jaw or salivary glands
Next to the ear
Well moving, sore, soft
Ear inflammation, carbuncoon in the field of temple, inflammation of the uha uhmue (may happen after puncture)
Does not hurt not moving
Cancer tumor of the skin of the temples, or the near-wing area, or ear
On the neck, behind her
Moves and hurts
Furunkul, Cabinkul, Flegmon Nature, Ringing, or other fungal infections
Does not hurt, not moving, covered with violence
Cancer tumor in the field
From below under the ear
Move and hurts
Otitis, purulent skin lesion in this area, mastoiditis
Not moving, does not hurt
Derma cancer, or the presence of metastasis in this area
On the neck in front
Soft and sore
Furuncules on the chin, herpes, stomatitis, pulpit, cyst tooth root, gum inflammation, osteomyelitis jaws, thyroid glance, tuberculosis
Buggy, not moving, does not hurt
Cancer lips, oral cavity, jaw, thyroid gland
Almonds with angina.
Also, this symptom can be a sign of lymphogranulum or toxoplasmosis.
Multiple lymph nodes are inflamed, not only on the neck, but also on other parts of the body.
This symptom may indicate HIV, brucellosis, infectious mononucleosis, systemic lesion of the body, for example, on a red lupus. You can also suspect subseptisis Wisters-Fanconi or reticulogisticatiytosis.
Alicise formation. Localization of the accumulation of pus caused by infection. Pump contains liquid, white blood cells, dead fabrics, bacteria and other elements dangerous to the body. If an abscess occurs, drainage or treatment with antibiotics may be required. Significant damage can be applied if there are vital organs affected.
If the lymphatic node remains increased by the person who suffered an ARVI, or some disease of the oral cavity, should not be taken. You just need to watch him. 7 days after recovery, the state of the node must stabilize. If he remains inflamed, then you need to contact the doctor. The doctor will appoint appropriate treatment.
However, if the lymph node is inflamed from a person who has previously suffered a cancer, to the doctor will need to go immediately.
Inflammation of lymph nodes is not an independent disease, but only the reaction of the body to this or that violation. To find the right treatment, you need to find out the cause of inflammation. An adult man should go to the reception to the therapist, and the child needs to show a pediatrician. In the future, it may be necessary to consult a otolaryngologist, hematologist, infectiousnessist, oncologist.
Analyzes and research:
Delivery of blood for general analysis.
Ultrasound of the lymphatic node.
PCR blood for the detection of viruses and bacteria.
Biopsy of the lymphatic node.
Sternal puncture of the lymphatic node.
Treatment of inflamed lymph nodes
After the reason for inflammation is revealed, the patient will prescribe treatment:
Fungal diseases of the skin and the scalp is treated with the use of systemic antifungal drugs.
When the oral cavity candidiasis, antifungal drugs will need.
When the lymph nodes are inflamed due to diseases of the teeth, it will be necessary to visit the dentist. The doctor signs foci of infection. It is possible to need physiotherapy, for example, galvanization or UHF.
Antibiotics are prescribed to patients when the disease is caused by bacteria. A specific drug will select a doctor. Do not do without the use of antibiotics in angina, purulent processes (inflammation of the tooth cysts, otitis, furunculosis), with osteomyelitis, etc., the antibiotics are prescribed to patients with the suppuration of the lymphatic node. If the patient develops an abscess or phlegmon, then the surgeon's help is required.
Inflammation of cervical lymph nodes in viral infection does not require antibiotics.
Cancer tumors require surgical intervention. At the discretion of the doctor, the patient will be appointed radiation or chemotherapy.
If the lymph nodes are inflicted against the background of systemic diseases, then the consultation of the rheumatologist is required. It will prescribe drugs that will allow suppress the excessive activity of the immune system. It is strictly forbidden to warm the lymph nodes, or draw on them a iodine mesh. Inside the nodes are bacteria or another dangerous microflora. Increasing body temperature at the local level can lead to their distribution throughout the body. Treatment should be selected by a specialist. Article author:Mochalov Pavel Alexandrovich
| d. n. therapist
Moscow Medical Institute. I. M. Sechenov, specialty - "Therapeutic Case" in 1991, in 1993 "Professional Diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".
Lymph nodes are a kind of biological filter that protects the human body from the penetration of alien pathogens. They contain specific immune lymphocyte cells that suppress the activity growth and activity of pathogens of various diseases.
The abnormal dimensions of the lymphatic node - a signal that the body is controlled by the disease. Localization is in the zone of inflammation of the lymphatic node. These are the first organs that suffer from impact, when the number of pathogens significantly exceeds the norm.
- Classification of cervical lymphadenita
- Acute neck lymphadenitis is accompanied by strong pain and redness of lymph nodes. Since this is not an independent disease, but the symptom is first treating non-lymphatic glands, but the disease itself. In case of chronic cervical lymphadenitis, the lymph nodes are significantly increased.
- Types of cervical lymphadenitis:
catarrhal (characteristic of infection);
After completed actions, you need to conduct a self-seeing. It is necessary to estimate the state of the throat and gums, soft tissues of the neck and face. If some kind of site is inflamed, then with a high probability it was it that it caused a change in lymph nodes. The next step is to appeal to the doctor.
hyperplastic (occurs at a later time when the lymphatic node on the neck begins to grow rapidly);
purulent (a dangerous state at which abscessivity is possible).
In accordance with the type and form of the disease, treatment is assigned. To determine the pathogen and the degree of prevalence of the pathological process, a comprehensive diagnosis is appointed.
From the region of localization of increased lymph nodes, it is possible to make an assumption about what disease is we talking about. Even with an independent determination of the cause of the changes that occurred in the body should not be engaged in self-medication, since this can lead to irreversible processes in the body.
Table - Localization of lymph nodes, drainage zones and causes
In the area of the presense
In the lower cervical triangle
Included on the right
Skin of the upper part of the sternum
Why lymph nodes are inflated on the neck
- Lymph nodes are located all over the body and serve in order to neutralize pathogens, foreign substances or cancer cells. For this purpose, they produce a certain type of leukocytes and lymphocytes. Each lymph node is, so to speak, filtering station of a specific area.
- If the lymph nodes swell only in certain places, it gives a physician proof of possible diseases. The swollen lymph nodes indicate the activity of the disease.
- The most common causes of inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck:
- bacterial or viral infectious diseases;
- the pathology of the thyroid gland;
- benign or malignant lymphoma;
Connective tissue diseases;
Inflammatory processes in the body.
An increase in lymph nodes may also indicate HIV. Tumor diseases (lympholecosis) can affect the body itself. Insect bites and allergies also provoke the appearance of this symptom.
Variations of symptoms of cervical lymphadenitis
- The clinical picture depends on the type of pathogen and the severity of the primary disease. With a viral infection of the body, the lymph nodes increase, become painful, but all these changes disappear by themselves in several weeks.
- However, with a bacterial infection, the symptoms of inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck look differently, since such diseases are usually accompanied by the formation and accumulation of purulent masses. The lymph nodes on the neck increase significantly, become solid and noticeable.
- Later it comes the so-called serous stage of lymphadenitis:
- The skin over the affected areas strongly swells, becomes solid and hot;
There are difficulties with swallowing;
Inspect the nodes becomes more difficult;
The main signs of poisoning (weakness, drowsiness, constant fatigue, loss of appetite, increasing body temperature) are observed.
As the disease progressing the symptoms of inflammation of lymph nodes are becoming stronger and more dangerous. The skin over the affected area becomes red and hot. There is a strong pain, which is enhanced with each touch or even turning the head. All these signs indicate the beginning of the purulent process. In severe cases, abscess can be noted under the skin.
If the above symptoms are observed, you need to consult a doctor. The fact is that lymphadenitis at the initial stage is much easier to cure. In advanced cases, without surgery can not do.
Lymphadenitis should be distinguished from changes in lymph nodes with malignant tumors
What to do with similar symptoms
Treatment of swollen lymph nodes always depends on the cause of discomfort. In more severe cases, a bacterial infection is a trigger shall be treated with antibiotics. If the edema persists more than 2-3 weeks or discomfort returns, cardinal measures should be taken.
With tactile inspection, the doctor will determine whether the seal is rigid or mild, moving or immobile, and whether the pain causes the pain. This information can already be extremely useful to determine the cause. Self-medication in this case is unacceptable. Even if there is no high temperature during the inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck, consultation with a specialist is the key to the speedy recovery and eliminating the likelihood of the development of complications.
- If the enlarged lymph nodes are soft and painless, it means that the immune system actively acts against pathogenic organisms. After the infection is defeated, the size of the nodes is returned to the norm.
- The treatment of cervical lymphadenitis should be started with the identification of the causes of infection and eliminate the source. After influenza, angina, sharp respiratory tract, lymph nodes return to the norm without drugs after a while. Otherwise, the doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs.
- If other options are deeper than the lymph nodes or as a trigger of edema, such as cysts or abscesses, the doctor prescribes:
- ultrasound procedure;
biopsy (study of the tissue sample);
radiography and / or CT;
Histological and cytological examination.
The method of treatment will depend on the accuracy of the diagnosis. The individual therapy scheme is developed only after receiving the results of the survey conducted.
- If drug therapy is not effective enough, then an operation to remove lymph nodes is a lymphodissection. The need for surgical intervention arises to obtain materials to conduct a histological examination. This approach allows us to determine the type and stage of disorders occurring in the body and choose an effective treatment regimen.
- Prevention of cervical lymphadenitis
- But it is worth remembering the simple rules to avoid unwanted signs of the disease:
- support immunity;
- prevent overcooling;
timely to treat and try to prevent acute infectious diseases; monitor the emergence of microtrams;
Observe personal hygiene.
Commonly recognized preventive measures in this case does not exist.
How to treat inflamed lymph nodes on the neck, only an experienced doctor can answer. If you do not visit the specialist in time, it is possible that the body will continue to progress in the body. If in the process of acute flow does not take action, then the disease becomes chronic, which significantly complicates the process of recovery.
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- LYMFADENIT: Treatment of lymph nodes
From this article you will learn:
symptoms of lymphadenitis in children and adults,
The reasons for the development of inflammation,
Acute and chronic lymphadenitis - treatment, antibiotics.
Lymphadenitis is inflammation of one or more lymph nodes, which arises against the background of acute or chronic infection. Most often, lymphadenitis occurs in children (due to the imperfection of their immune system), and on an outpatient reception at the children's dentist, lymphadenitis is diagnosed in aggregate in 5-7% of children. Moreover, if the lymphadenitis in children under 5 years old appears primarily due to ARVI, infectious processes in the field of almonds, internal and middle ear, then after 6-7 years - already due to the foci of purulent inflammation in the roots of the teeth. –
Approximately 40% of cases, inflammation of lymphatic nodes is not diagnosed on time. This is due to the fact that pediatricians and children's dentists - therapists, which most often parents lead children to inspections - do not have greater experience with this pathology. As for adults, the lymphadenitis arises from them much less frequently than in children, and the aggregate of factors usually leads to its development - the presence of acute or chronic purulent inflammation + weakened immune system.
On the face and neck there are many groups of lymphatic assemblies, the main of which are peeled, near-dry, subband, subordinate, pattering, and surface and deep cervical lymph nodes. Healthy children and adult lymph nodes are never enlarged, but if they increase - it almost always happens as a result of the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms. But it must be remembered that in some cases, the increase in lymph nodes may indicate tumor-like growth or blood diseases.
The structure and function of lymphatic nodes
In the body, lymph nodes play the role of a biological filter. Lymph nodes delay and destroy pathogenic bacteria and toxins that fall into them on lymphatic vessels - from affected by inflammation of teeth and bones, almonds, soft fabrics of the face, other organs and tissues. However, with permanent chronic settlement in them, microorganisms - they lose the possibility of their neutralization, and in some cases they themselves turn into sources of purulent infection.
Each lymph node has an outside of the connected capsule, from which the lymphatic vessels, providing the influx or an outflow of lymphs. Thin connecting partitions (Trabecules) are departed from the capsule inside of the lymph node (Trabecules), between which the parenchyma is located. Closer to the Parenhim capsule consists of lymphoid follicles, and closer to the center of the lymph node - from the heavyness of lymphocytes. Lymph, passing through the lymph node, is cleaned by infectious agents and other antigens, as well as the so-called "immune memory" is formed.
Inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck: Causes –
As we have already told above - at different ages prevail different causes of lymphadenitis. In children under 5 years old, sharp respiratory viral infections (flu, pneumonia, angina, otitis, rhinitis) are played, as well as foci of chronic infections in the field of almonds, internal and middle ear. Less frequently, the development of lymphadenitis at this age is associated with mercury lesions of the skin of the face and head, as well as with inflammation of the oral mucosa during stomatitis or as a result of traumatic damage. The development of lymphadenitis can also provoke a BCZH-vaccine from tuberculosis.
The diagnosis and treatment of all the above-limited lymphhadenites (i.e., pediatiys and infectiousists are often carried out more often. But as for age from 6 to 12 years old - here up to 70% of cases of inflammation of lymph nodes in a child is already connected with the foci of purulent inflammation in the field of teeth roots. Lymphadenitis caused by the inflammation of the teeth - they are called the term "odontogenic". And therefore the first doctor to which you should appeal in order to find a source of infection - there must be a dentist surgeon.
Causes of odontogenic lymphadenitis in children and adults -
Differences of odontogenic and non-modular lymphadenitis
As for odontogenic lymphadenitis, it most often complains of one-sided inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck, which corresponds to the subband lymph nodes (submandibular lymphadenitis). If you begin to ask the patient, it is very often possible to find that the inflammation of the lymph node was preceded by pain in one of the teeth, or the flux could be formed on this, or one of the teeth were recently treated at the dentist. Those. Usually there is always a precise connection between the inflammation of the lymph node and the causal tooth (from the same side), or with the disease of the oral mucosa.
In acute in -ure-free lymphadenitis, patients make complaints about the appearance of not one, and usually several "balls" are immediately at once in the submandibular area or the top sections of the neck. Moreover, patients clearly associate it with recent angina, otitis or ARVI recently. The peculiarity of the inadecogenous lymphadenitis is that the inflammation of lymph nodes goes immediately in several anatomical areas, often symmetrical (by the way, this is one of the distinguctive signs of non-modular lymphadenitis). In addition, uncommon lymphadenitis is always accompanied by a common inflammatory process in the body associated with the main disease, for example, otitis or an angina.
What lymph nodes are often inflated -
Moreover, it is always possible to determine the source of inflammation of the lymph node, if you know the paths of the outflow of lymphs from different areas of the face - into lymph nodes of a certain localization. Most often in children and adults there is inflammation of submandibular lymph nodes located along the lower edge of the lower jaw. Lymph from bone tissue, periosteum and lower jaws (from the fang to the third molar), as well as the almonds, the skin of the outer nose and the front sections of the nasal oral mucosa leather.
In addition, Lymph and bone fabric, periosteum and teeth of the upper jaw (from the fourth premolat to the third molar) partially fall into submandibular lymph nodes. An important point is a slightly deeper submandibular lymph nodes there are cap lymphatic nodes, to which lymphs from the middle ear, from the rear sections of the nasal cavity, and also partially from almonds, and from solid and soft nose.
Another important group is the chin lymph nodes, in which Lymph leaks from the skin of the upper and lower lips, from the roots of the lower cutters and fangs, from the bone and the supervisor of the chore department of the lower jaw. Accordingly, the inflammation of this group of lymph node can be caused, for example, a focus of purulent inflammation at one of the lower front teeth. But Limph leaks from the skin of the forehead, ear shells, outdoor hearing aisters, cheeks and upper lips is subject to the near-dry lymph nodes. Accordingly, the inflammation of the variety of lymph nodes can be provoked by the inflammatory process in these tissues.
Lymphadenitis classification -
There are several variants of classifications of lymphadenitis. For example, on the localization of lymphadenitis inflammation can be submandibular, pre-aromatic, perfection, sandy, cervical, etc. In the path of penetration of infection, lymphadenitis are divided into 1) "odontogenic", i.e. In this case, the infection is associated with the teeth, 2) "uncommon", i.e. associated with a viral or bacterial infectious process of non-dental nature (this may be including sepsis, and a specific infection of the type of tuberculosis, syphilis, actinomycosis, AIDS).
The most important classification takes into account the severity of the inflammatory process, and divides lymphadenitis into acute and chronic. In turn, acute lymphadenitis can be serous and purulent. It must be said that acute serous lymphadenitis, in which the focus of purulent inflammation is not yet in the fabric of the lymph node (and there is only serous infiltration) - is the only form of lymphadenitis, which can be cured conservedly without surgery. But very often, patients turn to the doctor too late when foci of necrosis are formed in the lemph node tissues and cavity with pus. As for chronic lymphadenitis forms, it is released here - hyperplastic, purulent and aggravated chronic. In chronic hyperplastic form, a slow continuous increase in the volume of lymph node (due to the substitution of lymphoid tissue is connective). However, in the case when against the background of weakened immunity or high infection infection, inflammation extends already abroad of the lymph node capsule - can be formed adenoflems. It should be noted that for each of the sharp and chronic forms, their special symptoms are characteristic. Acute and chronic lymphadenitis: symptoms
For lymphadenitis, a certain seasonality of the disease is characteristic - most often they arise in the autumn-winter period and early spring. In the first case, the flash is explained primarily by the active state of the immune system during this period, and too acute reaction to any infection. And in the spring, on the contrary, is associated with the weakness of the immune system, and not the ability of lymph nodes to resist the large volume of pathogenic microorganisms. So, we turn to the symptoms of different forms of lymphadenitis ... one) Acute serous lymphadenitis
- It is characterized by an increase in the lymphatic node (sometimes significant), as well as the appearance of pain. The general condition is satisfactory, the temperature is usually not higher than 37.5, there are no changes in blood and urine. During palpation, an enlarged painful knot is told usually rounded shape, the skin is not soldered with it (that is, the skin over the lymph node is collected in the fold), and its color is not changed. If the inflammation is elected, the lymph node decreases, gradually becomes softer, the pain disappears (24stoma.ru).
Acute purulent lymphadenitis - If the child has not received a reception to a dental surgeon or pediatrician for 5-7 days, the serous inflammation usually goes into purulent. This also contributes to active homemade self-medication in the form of various compresses and heating. The rapid transition of serous inflammation into purulent contributes to the incorrect diagnosis of pediatricians, which immediately prescribe heat compresses, thereby speeding up the transformation of serous inflammation into purulent (with the result that such children quickly fall into the maxillofacial compartment). In acute purulent lymphadenitis, complaints are usually imposed on an increased lymph node, in which a pulsating pain appears, a significant increase in body temperature up to 38.0 ° C, loss of appetite (in the case of children, a change in behavior occurs, the child becomes a capricious, restless). In the projection of the inflamed lymphatic assembly, the swelling of the tissues appears, and a painful infiltration of a rounded form is tested during palpation. The skin in the projection of the lymph node becomes red, gradually saves with the lymphatic node (i.e. will not be collected in the fold). In the center of the infiltrate eventually the softening center may appear, i.e. Symptom of fluctuations.
If the inflammation is localized in caps or near-dry lymph nodes, the swallowing is usually painful, and the opening of the mouth is most often limited. As for adults, the symptoms of them can flow through the above described above, but it can often be erased. In the latter case, the formation of purulent abscess inside the lymph node occurs slowly (sometimes within 2-3 weeks), and is not accompanied by severe common and local symptoms. The absence of treatment of acute purulent lymphadenitis can lead to the exit of pus beyond the limits of the lymph node capsule, i.e. The surrounding fabrics and the development of severe complications are adenoflems.
3) Chronic hyperplastic lymphadenitis - This form of lymphadenitis occurs mainly only in adults, it develops slowly (sometimes for 1-2 months and even more). Patients usually complain about the presence of some rounded formation in soft tissues, as well as sometimes on weakness and indisposition. The general condition is usually satisfactory, and only in the evening the temperature can increase to 37-37.5 ° C. Initially, in the depths of facial fabrics or neck, a painless or weak-painful pea appears, which gradually increases and compacted.
During palpation, the lymph node of the rounded shape, with clear contours, movable and non-stitching with the subjectable fabrics. Sometimes in the lymph node there is a significant increase in the granulation tissue, which goes beyond the limits of the lymph node capsule and germinates to the skin, eats it. In the breakthrough of thinned skin, a fistula move is usually formed, from which granulation sput. This form of lymphadenitis can periodically exacerbate, and then during the exacerbation of the symptoms will correspond to acute purulent lymphadenitis.
four) Chronic purulent lymphadenitis - This chronic form of lymphadenitis is also found in children, and in adults. Patients usually complain about a long-term "ball" (more often in the breeding or submandibular region), which does not cause special inconvenience. From the survey, you can usually find out that the ball first appeared a few weeks or months ago - most often after the occurrence of pain in the tooth on the side of the inflamed lymph node. In the future, pain in the tooth disappeared, and slightly increased lymph node remained.
Also, patients may noted that for several months there were one or more cases of exacerbation of chronic inflammation, which was manifested by a minor temperature increase, an increase in the size of the lymph node and its pain. In this case, with palpation, a dense, painful, limited rolling, is not soldered with the skin formation of a rounded form, in the center of which you can detect the softening focus (fluctuations).
- It occurs when the lymph node capsule is melt, when the pus contained in it penetrates into the surrounding loose fiber. Those. There is a spilled purulent inflammation. Patients usually make complaints in most commonly intense, spontaneously emerging pain in any area, as well as deterioration of well-being, chills, an increase in body temperature to 38-38.5 ° C. In rare cases, adenoflegmons develop slowly, symptomatics erased, and the body temperature does not exceed 37.5-38 ° C.
Patients always usually say that the disease began with the appearance of a painful ball (pea), gradually increasing. Over time, the tissues appeared a spilled infiltrate, the skin on which became red, gradually ceased to gather into the fold. The output of a pus from the lymph node into the surrounding tissue is accompanied by an increase in the area of infiltrate, the skin gradually becomes a barrier, and the center of softening may appear in the center of the infiltrate. The treatment of adenoflemmon is only surgical, the urgent autopsy is shown, and the localization of the outer cuts will be envy against the localization of inflammation.
Establishing diagnosis -
The diagnosis of odontogenic lymphadenitis is quite simple, because Always traced in touch with dental pain and gum inflammation. When examining the teeth in this case, you can find or destroyed tooth, or a tooth under a seal or crown. Progressing on such a tooth can be painful or in it still quite recently had pain. On the gum in the projection of the causation tooth can be a fistine or a bump, and pressure per gum can be painful. If the inflammation in the area of the teeth is chronic and proceeds almost asymptomatic - it will help us to carry out panoramic radiography.
It is more difficult to put the correct diagnosis in the uncommon lymphadenitis, which in this case you need to be able to distinguish between abscesses, phlegmon, sialodenitis, salivary disease, ventilating atheroma, as well as from specific lymphadenitis during syphilis, tuberculosis and actinomyosis. With sharp form of lymphadenitis, puncture plays crucial importance for setting the right diagnosis. The study of the Point allows you to put the correct diagnosis and distinguish between the usual nonspecific infectious lymphadenitis from specific lesions (actinomycosis, tuberculosis, syphilis, as well as oncology).
In addition, chronic hyperplastic lymphadenitis needs to be distinguished from congenital cysts and fistulas and necks, tumors, as well as from lymphoganululetsis (puncture will also help us). No less important when examining pay attention to other lymph nodes, because The increase in several groups of facial and cervical lymph nodes at once - should alert against certain blood diseases, HIV infection.
In the treatment of lymphadenitis, the main thing is to eliminate the cause of its occurrence. Accordingly, in odontogenic lymphadenitis, depending on the state of the tooth and the age of the child, it is necessary to treat or remove the causal tooth. If adults have preserving the tooth, it is desirable to spend in all possible cases, then children have a much more difficult situation. In children, inflammation in the top of the root is treated only in constant teeth, milk teeth are subject to mandatory removal. This is due to the wide root channels of the milk teeth, the non-formation of the tops of the roots of dairy teeth, which are gaping down huge apical holes.
Such teeth are impossible to be highly polled, plus there is too much risk of injury for a constant tooth. Numerous attempts to treat such teeth ends in almost 100% of cases by complications - the development of purulent periostitis, inflammation and loss of a constant tooth, sometimes - sepsis and even with lethal cases. And this is not to mention that the long-term presence of a focus of purulent inflammation in a child affects the entire organism, suppresses its immunity, contributing to the occurrence of frequent infectious diseases, allergic reactions, bronchial asthma, etc. pathology. It is worth remembering when not too competent doctor proposes not to remove such a tooth, motivating this possible problems with a bite in the future.
Accordingly, if it is possible to maintain a permanent tooth in a child or in an adult - an autopsy of the tooth (removal of carious tissues, an old seal or crown, root channel revision) - to create pus outflow through the root canal. The general therapy is appointed, and after stopping the fostering, the inflammatory focus at the top of the tooth root is treated standard, as in chronic periodontitis, i.e. With a bookmark in the root canals of a special healing paste. All these actions will prevent further infection from the focus of inflammation - in lymph nodes.
1) Serious lymphadenitis treatment -
The treatment tactics of serous lymphadenitis will depend on what day after the start of the disease the patient appealed to the doctor (the earlier, the greater the chances of the success of conservative treatment). In this case, at first a conservative treatment is used - compresses with a 5% solution of dimexide, in which anti-inflammatory drugs dissolve. To do this, it is necessary to add 1 ml of hydrocortisone solution to 10 ml of a 5% solution of hydrocortisone, 50% of the analgin solution and 1% diploma solution.
Next make a classic compress on the site where the affected lymphatic node is located. The solution is abundantly wetting a gauze napkin, a polyethylene film is imposed on top of it (for insulation of the solution from air). In no case should not make the compress thermal, imposing on top of the film any material or towel. Thermal procedures, if it is not 1-2 day development day, only aggravate congestive phenomena in lymph node and will contribute to the development of pathogenic microorganisms, i.e. The transition of serous inflammation into purulent (for the same reason it is not necessary to make an UHF, a dressing of the ointment of Vishnevsky).
If a child or adult appeals to the doctor in the first 2-3 days from the onset of the disease, the most effective is the use of physiotherapy methods - hydrocortisone phones, electrophoresis of dimexide with antibiotic and diphedrol, laser and therapy.
2) Treatment of purulent forms of lymphadenitis -
For the treatment of acute purulent lymphadenitis, exacerbation of chronic purulent lymphadenitis, adenoflems are applied by surgery. The operation is done in a hospital under general anesthesia, and it is necessary to scrape the necrotic tissue of the lymph node from the wound. In case of chronic hyperplastic lymphadenitis, the lymph node is better to remove with the subsequent histological examination (and if there is a fistulous course with germination of granulation to the skin surface - the lymph node is removed along with the fistula).
- After opening the abscess prescribed physiotheredresses - the electrophoresis of enzymes, UHF, magnetotherapy, helium-neon irradiation, UFO. Depending on the severity of inflammation, intoxication and immunity states, various drugs are used. First of all, these are disintellation and antihistamines, sometimes antibiotics. Antibiotics with inflammation of lymph nodes are not used, but those that have the property to accumulate precisely in lymph nodes, for example, ampicillin / sulbactam, cefazolin, claforan).
- Lymph node removal with hyperplastic lymphadenitis -
- Complications of lymphadenitis -
- As for complications, lymphadenitis can be complicated by adenoflegmon, and the latter - lead to the development of phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, sepsis. The causes of complications usually appear:
- sharp impact of immunity against the background of viral and infectious diseases,
If in the focus of inflammation besides ordinary microflora (staphylococcus, streptococcus) there are also anaerobes, for example, clostridia and fuzobacteria,
mistakes in diagnosis :
untimely start of treatment Incorrect treatment, including attempts by home self-medication. The prevention of lymphadenitis is the timely sahanation of the oral cavity, as well as foci of acute and chronic infection in the body. We hope that our article: How to treat lymphadenitis neck - it turned out to be useful to you! Sources 1. Higher Prof. The formation of the author on surgical dentistry, 2. Based on personal experience in maxillofacial surgery and surgical dentistry,